Xinhua Sarah Sun

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BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has rapidly spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years; the magnitude of the epidemic is unclear. We sought to test 3 hypotheses: (1) The prevalence of both HIV and syphilis among MSM in China is high, (2) the 2 epidemics each have unique geographical distributions, and (3) demographic(More)
China's methadone maintenance treatment program was initiated in 2004 as a small pilot project in just eight sites. It has since expanded into a nationwide program encompassing more than 680 clinics covering 27 provinces and serving some 242 000 heroin users by the end of 2009. The agencies that were tasked with the program's expansion have been confronted(More)
BACKGROUND Before 2003, little was known about the scale of China's HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2003, the Chinese government produced national estimates with support from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Subsequent national estimation exercises were(More)
BACKGROUND Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the 'Golden Triangle', one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of(More)
BACKGROUND As China continues to commit to universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care services, its HIV/AIDS policies have become increasingly information driven. We review China's key national-level HIV/AIDS policies and discuss policy gaps and challenges ahead. METHODS We conducted a desk review of key national-level policies that have(More)
The strategy for monitoring HIV/AIDS in China has evolved with the epidemic. The national HIV/AIDS surveillance system was established in 1985 and sentinel surveillance started in 1995. Initially, 42 sentinel sites were established to monitor the epidemic among certain high-risk groups, including drug users, female sex workers, STD clinic attendees and(More)
Little information is available on gene expression profiling of halophyte A. canescens. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for stress tolerance in A. canescens, a full-length complementary DNA library was generated from A. canescens exposed to 400 mM NaCl, and provided 343 high-quality ESTs. In an evaluation of 343 valid EST sequences in the cDNA library,(More)
BACKGROUND Drug use and in particular injecting drug use has been at the forefront of the explosive spread of HIV in general populations in many countries in Asia. There is concern that also in China increased HIV incidence in drug users might spark off a generalized epidemic in the wider population. Close monitoring of HIV incidence and risk factors in(More)
Two new meroterpenoids, arisugacins I (1) and J (2), together with five known meroterpenoids including arisugacin B (3), arisugacin F (4), arisugacin G (5), territrem B (6) and territrem C (7) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. SXH-65. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic experiments and comparison with literature(More)