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OBJECTIVE To determine the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR9, and TLR2+9 in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS Mice with gene knock-out of TLR2, TLR9, and TLR2+9 underwent renal I/R injury. Tubular damage, expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and kidney dysfunction were evaluated on different days after(More)
The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) has been implicated in both central nervous system ischaemia/reperfusion injury and excitotoxic neuronal death. To characterize the mPT of brain mitochondria, fluorescent mitochondrial dyes were applied to cultured neurons and astrocytes and isolated brain mitochondria were prepared. In astrocytes, mPT(More)
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