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Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4 are transcription factors all essential to maintaining the pluripotent embryonic stem cell phenotype. Through a cooperative interaction, Sox2 and Oct4 have previously been described to drive pluripotent-specific expression of a number of genes. We now extend the list of Sox2-Oct4 target genes to include Nanog. Within the Nanog proximal(More)
Microalgal lipids are the oils of future for sustainable biodiesel production. However, relatively high production costs due to low lipid productivity have been one of the major obstacles impeding their commercial production. We studied the effects of nitrogen sources and their concentrations on cell growth and lipid accumulation of Neochloris oleoabundans,(More)
Microalgae are a group of unicellular or simple multicellular photosynthetic microorganisms that can fix CO2 efficiently from different sources, including the atmosphere, industrial exhaust gases, and soluble carbonate salts. Combination of CO2 fixation, biofuel production, and wastewater treatment may provide a very promising alternative to current CO2(More)
The signalling molecule Hedgehog (Hh) functions as a morphogen to pattern a field of cells in animal development. Previous studies in Drosophila have demonstrated that Tout-velu (Ttv), a heparan sulphate polymerase, is required for Hh movement across receiving cells. However, the molecular mechanism of Ttv- mediated Hh movement is poorly defined. We show(More)
We showed previously that the orphan nuclear receptor Tlx is required for the correct establishment of the pallio-subpallial boundary. Loss of Tlx results in a dorsal expansion of ventral markers (e.g., the homeodomain protein GSH2) into the ventralmost pallial region, i.e., the ventral pallium. We also observed a disproportionate reduction in the size of(More)
The homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2) is known to be required for striatal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis; however, its specific role in the specification of these two neuronal subtypes remains unclear. To address this, we have employed a temporally regulated gain-of-function approach in transgenic mice and found that misexpression of Gsx2 at early stages(More)
The cell intrinsic factors that determine whether a neuron regenerates or undergoes apoptosis in response to axonal injury are not well defined. Here we show that the mixed-lineage dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is an essential upstream mediator of both of these divergent outcomes in the same cell type. Optic nerve crush injury leads to rapid elevation of(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential for neuronal degeneration in multiple contexts but also regulates neuronal homeostasis. It remains unclear how neurons are able to dissociate proapoptotic JNK signaling from physiological JNK activity. In this paper, we show that the mixed lineage kinase dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK)(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether resistance exercise performance and postexercise muscle damage were altered when consuming a carbohydrate and protein beverage (CHO-PRO; 6.2% and 1.5% concentrations). Thirty-four male subjects (age: 21.5 +/- 1.7 years; height: 177.3 +/- 1.1 cm; weight: 77.2 +/- 2.2 kg) completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at(More)
This paper compares three possible strategies for enhanced lipid overproduction in microalgae: the biochemical engineering (BE) approaches, the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, and the transcription factor engineering (TFE) approaches. The BE strategy relies on creating a physiological stress such as nutrient-starvation or high salinity to channel(More)