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The rates of molecular evolution for protein-coding genes depend on the stringency of functional or structural constraints. The Ka/Ks ratio has been commonly used as an indicator of selective constraints and is typically calculated from interspecies alignments. Recent accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data has enabled the derivation of(More)
Taxanes are very effective at causing mitotic arrest; however, there is variability among cancer cells in the apoptotic response to mitotic arrest. The variability in clinical efficacy of taxane-based therapy is likely a reflection of this variability in apoptotic response, thus elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the apoptotic response to mitotic(More)
Interactions between carcinogens in mixtures found in the environment have been a concern for several decades. In the present study, male B6C3F1 mice were used to study the responses to mixtures of dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroacetate (TCA), and carbon tetrachloride (CT). TCA produces liver tumors in mice with the phenotypic characteristics common to(More)
During cell division, cells form the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, a highly specialized and dynamic structure that mediates proper chromosome transmission to daughter cells. Cancer cells can show perturbed mitotic spindles and an approach in cancer treatment has been to trigger cell killing by targeting microtubule dynamics or spindle assembly. To(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis, the most expensive cause of hospitalization in the United States, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, healthcare utilization patterns following sepsis are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To identify patient-level factors that contribute to postsepsis mortality and healthcare utilization. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS A(More)
This presentation evaluates differences between radiation biomarkers of dose and risk and demonstrates the consequential problems associated with using biomarkers to do risk calculations following radiation exposures to the complex radiation environment found in deep space. Dose is a physical quantity, while risk is a biological quantity. Dose does not(More)
The carcinogenic response to radiation is complex and may involve adaptive cellular responses as well as a bystander effect mediated by paracrine or intercellular signaling activities. Using a newly developed co-culture model we have examined whether low dose gamma radiation induces the transformation of JB6 mouse epidermal cells as well as non-irradiated(More)
Data fusion (or information integration) from different sources is required for many technical fields, including epidemiology, medicine, biology, business, and military applications such as intelligence. Data fusion may involve integration of spectral content with imaging, text, and many other observations or with sensor data. Therefore, any software system(More)
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