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N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been reported to have an important role in synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. Two major subtypes of these receptors, NMDAR1 and NMDAR2, are present in brain and heterogeneity of these receptors have been reported to define specific functional responses. In this study, the effects of age and chronic(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in huntingtin (htt), a large (350 kDa) protein that localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Proteolytic cleavage of mutant htt yields polyQ-containing N-terminal fragments that are prone to misfolding and aggregation. Disease progression in HD transgenic models correlates with(More)
Humanin (HN) is an anti-apoptotic peptide that suppresses neuronal cell death induced by Alzheimer's disease, prion protein fragments, and serum deprivation. Recently, we demonstrated that Gly14-HN (HNG), a variant of HN in which the 14th amino acid serine is replaced with glycine, can decrease apoptotic neuronal death and reduce infarct volume in a focal(More)
Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, plays a critical role in neurological disorders such as stroke and Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have suggested that glutamate excess can result in a form of cell death called glutamate-induced oxytosis. In this study, we explore the protective effects of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor of(More)
Since several different pathways are involved in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, combination therapy rather than monotherapy may be required for efficient neuroprotection. In this study, we examined the protective effects of an apoptosis inhibitor Gly(14)-humanin (HNG) and a necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) on hypoxia/ischemia/reperfusion(More)
Oxidative cell death contributes to neuronal cell death in many neurological diseases such as stroke, brain trauma, and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we explored the involvement of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) in oxidative stress-induced necroptosis. We showed that PJ34, a potent and specific inhibitor of PARP, can completely inhibit(More)
The present study was designed to reveal the potential role of let-7c-5p, a highly conserved miRNA in stroke. We found that the content of let-7c-5p was significantly decreased in the plasma of patients with ischemic stroke as well as in experimental animals. Moreover, we also observed a significant decrease of let-7c-5p in ipsilateral cortex and striatum(More)
Carvacrol (CAR), a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol and food additive, has been shown to have antimicrobials, antitumor, and antidepressant-like activities. A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that a natural coumarin compound esculetin (Esc) possesses antioxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammation activities and rescues cultured primary neurons from NMDA toxicity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Esc on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion(More)
Caspase-dependent apoptosis is considered one of the most important cell death pathways. When the apoptotic process is blocked, a form of programmed necrosis called necroptosis occurs. Apoptosis and necroptosis may share some regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies indicated that receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), an Hsp90-associated kinase, is an(More)