Xingquan Zhang

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Leishmania species are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause a broad spectrum of clinical diseases in mammalian hosts. The most frequently used approach to quantify parasites in murine model systems is based on thickness measurements of the footpad or ear after experimental infection. To overcome the limitations of this method, we used a(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) cleaves sialic acids (Sias) from glycans. Inhibiting NA with oseltamivir suppresses both viral infection, and viral release from cultured human airway epithelial cells. The role of NA in viral exit is well established: it releases budding virions by cleaving Sias from glycoconjugates on infected cells and progeny(More)
Recently, antiretroviral agents directed at several steps involved in viral entry have been shown to reduce viral replication in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated a high level of in vitro synergistic antiretroviral activity for two entry inhibitors that are directed at sequential steps in the entry process.
A novel strain of influenza A H1N1 emerged in the spring of 2009 and has spread rapidly throughout the world. Although vaccines have recently been developed that are expected to be protective, their availability was delayed until well into the influenza season. Although anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase inhibitors can be effective, resistance to(More)
BACKGROUND There is conflicting evidence about the contribution of heterosexual transmission to the spread of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in southern Africa. This study evaluated the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other sexually transmitted infections among Zimbabwean men.(More)
Despite growing interest in the molecular epidemiology of influenza virus, the pattern of viral spread within individual communities remains poorly understood. To determine the phylogeography of influenza virus in a single population, we examined the spatial diffusion of H1N1/09 influenza A virus within the student body of the University of California, San(More)
Inguinal lymph nodes from 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected subjects without Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases were examined for KSHV infection. KSHV-infected cells were detected at a very low frequency in the lymph nodes of 7 subjects (median frequency, 2 infected cells/10(7) lymph node cells). Latent, but(More)
Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA) targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease), NS5B protein (polymerase) and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors(More)
Diagnosis of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals remains a major public health challenge, particularly in resource-limited settings. Here, we describe a rapid diagnostic system that delivers a panel of serologic immunoassay results using a single drop of blood, serum, or plasma. The system consists of disposable cartridges and a simple(More)