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The efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning remains low, thus limiting the applications of this technique. In this study, we used immunochemistry and confocal microscopy to detect the microtubule component, β-tubulin, in SCNT, parthenogenetic (PA), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) embryos before the first mitotic division.(More)
Morphogenesis and identification of embryonic differentiation in porcine embryos are crucial issues for developmental biology and laboratory animal science. The current paper presents a study on the asynchronous development of hatched porcine embryos from days 7 to 13 post-insemination. Examination of semi-thin sections of the hypoblast showed that it had(More)
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used extensively as a permeable cryoprotectant and is a common solvent utilized for several water-insoluble substances. DMSO has various biological and pharmacological activities; however, the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation remains unknown. In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that(More)
Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become the most frequently used system for studies of gene expression. Many studies have provided reliable evidence that the transcription levels of reference genes are not constant at different developmental stages and in different experimental conditions. However, suitable(More)
The most effective reprogramming methods, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are widely used in biological research and regenerative medicine, yet the mechanism that reprograms somatic cells to totipotency remains unclear and thus reprogramming efficiency is still low. Microarray technology has been employed in(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are transcriptionally active in cleavage stage embryos, yet their functions are unknown. ERV sequences are present in the majority of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in mouse and humans, playing key roles in many cellular processes and diseases. Here, we identify LincGET as a nuclear lincRNA that is GLN-, MERVL-, and(More)
Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes,(More)
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