Xingguo Cheng

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Bone is a hierarchically structured composite material which, in addition to its obvious biological value, has been well studied by the materials engineering community because of its unique structure and mechanical properties. This article will review the existing bone literature, with emphasis on the prevailing theories regarding bone formation and(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants and are universally present in the environment. An exponential increase in PBDE concentrations in the U.S. population have been reported over the last 3 decades. PBDEs 47 (tetraBDE) and 99 (pentaBDE) are the most commonly detected PBDE congeners in the environment and in human samples.(More)
The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp) are ATP-dependent transporters that export a variety of conjugated and unconjugated compounds out of cells. There are nine identified Mrp transporters in humans, with murine orthologs for all except Mrp8. Because nuclear receptors mediate induction of phase I enzymes, Mrp transporter expression might be(More)
The liver-specific importer organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b2 (Oatp1b2, Slco1b2, also known as Oatp4 and Lst-1) and its human orthologs OATP1B1/1B3 transport a large variety of chemicals. Oatp1b2-null mice were engineered by homologous recombination and their phenotype was characterized. Oatp1b2 protein was absent in livers of Oatp1b2-null mice.(More)
Analysis of the mouse genome has revealed eight multidrug resistance-associated (Mrp) transporters, with mouse homologs for all human MRPs except MRP8. Whereas MRP expression in tissues of humans and rats has been examined, no characterization exists for mice. Furthermore, the ontogeny of mouse Mrps is unknown, and such knowledge may be helpful in(More)
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) are Na(+)-independent solute carriers for cellular uptake of organic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine 1) the constitutive mRNA expression of the 15 mouse Oatp genes in 12 tissues, 2) whether there are gender differences in Oatp expression, and 3) the ontogenic expression of Oatps in liver(More)
Cytochrome p450 enzymes (Cyps) are major phase-I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Cyps are regulated by many environmental chemicals and drugs. However, knowledge about regulation of Cyps by perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), which are persistent in the environment, is limited. Two days after a single i.p. administration (50 mg/kg) of perfluorooctanoic acid(More)
Drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters are key factors that affect disposition of xenobiotics. Phase I enzyme induction by classes of microsomal enzyme inducers occurs via activation of transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated(More)
Transporters are expressed in a wide variety of tissues where they perform the critical function of enabling anionic and cationic chemicals of exogenous and endogenous origin to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes. The Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters mediate cellular efflux of a variety of organic cations, including many drugs. The(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) have been detected globally in wildlife and humans. Data from a gene array indicate that PFOA decreases organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) in liver. Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are major transporters responsible for uptake of bile(More)