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The 6-O sulfation states of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are dynamically regulated to control the growth and specification of embryonic progenitor lineages. However, mechanisms for regulation of HSPG sulfation have been unknown. Here, we report on the biochemical and Wnt signaling activities of QSulf1, a novel cell surface sulfatase.(More)
Hedgehogs (Hhs) are key signaling regulators of stem cell maintenance and tissue patterning in embryos, and activating mutations in the pathway that increase Gli transcriptional activity are causal in a diversity of cancers. Here, we report that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent Akt activation is essential for Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) plays an essential role in extracellular signaling during development. Biochemical studies have established that HS binding to ligands and receptors is regulated by the fine 6-O-sulfated structure of HS; however, mechanisms that control sulfated HS structure and associated signaling functions in vivo are not known. Extracellular HS(More)
The signaling activities of multiple developmental ligands require sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans as coreceptors. QSulf1 and its mammalian orthologs are cell surface HS 6-O-endosulfatases that are expressed in embryonic mesodermal and neural progenitors and promote Wnt signal transduction. In this study, we have investigated the function of(More)
The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed by one-third of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons mediates pain sensation and vasodilation. The developmental regulation of CGRP is poorly understood, but may involve target-derived factors from skin or viscera. Few embryonic DRG neurons in defined culture express CGRP, indicating(More)
In the embryonic chick ventral spinal cord, the initial emergence of oligodendrocytes is a relatively late event that depends on prolonged Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In this report, we show that specification of oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) from ventral Nkx2.2-expressing neural progenitors occurs precisely when these progenitors stop generating(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required during muscle regeneration for regulating extracellular signaling pathways. HSPGs interact with growth factors and receptors through heparan sulfate (HS) chains. However, the regulatory mechanisms that control HS sulfation to affect the growth factor-dependent proliferation and differentiation of satellite(More)
Adult sensory neurons differ chemically, morphologically, and functionally, but the factors that generate their diversity remain unclear. For example, neuropeptides are generally found in small neurons, whereas abundant neurofilament is common in large neurons. Neurons containing the neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P were(More)
The extracellular sulfatases (Sulfs) are an evolutionally conserved family of heparan sulfate (HS)-specific 6-O-endosulfatases. These enzymes remodel the 6-O-sulfation of cell surface HS chains to promote Wnt signaling and inhibit growth factor signaling for embryonic tissue patterning and control of tumor growth. In this study we demonstrate that the avian(More)
Skeletal muscle regeneration is mediated by satellite cells (SCs). Upon injury, SCs undergo self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation into myoblasts followed by myoblast fusion to form new myofibers. We previously showed that the heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulf1 and -2) repress FGF signaling to induce SC differentiation during muscle(More)