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The retina in adult mammals, unlike those in lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, is not known to support neurogenesis. However, when injured, the adult mammalian retina displays neurogenic changes, raising the possibility that neurogenic potential may be evolutionarily conserved and could be exploited for regenerative therapy. Here, we show that(More)
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuous cell lines derived from the inner mass of blastocysts. Neural progenitors derived from these cells serve as an excellent model for controlled neural differentiation and as such have tremendous potential to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ES cell-derived neural(More)
Manufacturing scheduling is an important but difficult task. Building on our previous success in developing optimization-based scheduling methods using Lagrangian relaxation for practical applications, this paper presents a novel Lagrangian relaxation neural network (LRNN) optimization techniques. The convergence of LRNN for separable convex programming(More)
Neural stem cells/progenitors that give rise to neurons and glia have been identified in different regions of the brain, including the embryonic retina. Recently, such cells have been reported to be present, in a mitotically quiescent state, in the ciliary epithelium of the adult mammalian eye. The retinal and ciliary epithelium stem cells/progenitors(More)
Evidence suggests that, as development ensues, the competence of neural progenitors is progressively altered, such that they become fated to give rise to neurons of a particular stage. Here, we demonstrate that late retinal progenitors can give rise to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), an example of an early-born cell type in the retina. A subset of late(More)
The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic(More)
The advent of monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology has made Ehrlich's postulate of the 'magic bullet' an attainable goal. Although specific localization of polyvalent antibodies to human gliomas was demonstrated in the 1960s, the lack of specific, high affinity antibody populations and of defined target antigens of sufficient density precluded therapeutic(More)
It is thought that the adult mammalian retina lacks the regenerative capacity of fish and amphibians retina because it does not harbor a progenitor population. However, recent observations suggest that another derivative of the optic neuroepithelium, the ciliary body, contains a mitotically quiescent population of neural progenitors that proliferate in the(More)
Otoconia are bio-crystals anchored to the macular sensory epithelium of the utricle and saccule in the inner ear for motion sensing and bodily balance. Otoconia dislocation, degeneration and ectopic calcification can have detrimental effects on balance and vertigo/dizziness, yet the mechanism underlying otoconia formation is not fully understood. In this(More)
Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward(More)