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Current understanding of microRNA (miRNA) biology is limited, and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibition of miRNAs is a powerful technique for their functionalization. To uncover the role of the liver-specific miR-122 in the adult liver, we inhibited it in mice with a 2'-O-methoxyethyl phosphorothioate ASO. miR-122 inhibition in normal mice resulted in(More)
UNLABELLED In the early stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate in hepatocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) catalyzes the final step in hepatocyte triglyceride biosynthesis. DGAT2 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment improved hepatic steatosis dramatically in a previous study of obese mice. According to(More)
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed(More)
Hormonal control of metabolic rate can be important in regulating the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that underlies the development of obesity. In mice fed a high-fat diet, human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) increased metabolic rate [1.53 +/- 0.06 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (vehicle) vs. 1.93 +/- 0.05 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (FGF19); P <(More)
Hepatic steatosis is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and leads to hepatic insulin resistance. Malonyl-CoA, generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (Acc1 and Acc2), is a key regulator of both mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and fat synthesis. We used a diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and(More)
  • X X Yu, W Mao, +5 authors G Pan
  • 2000
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins have been implicated in the maintenance of metabolic rate and adaptational thermoregulation. We recently reported the identification of a brain-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein homologue, UCP4. Here we characterized another newly described member of the uncoupling protein family, termed UCP5 (also called BMCP1).(More)
In patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis contribute to fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. Since cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a key regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression, we hypothesized that decreasing hepatic CREB expression would reduce fasting(More)
Particulate air pollution has been suggested as the cause of the recently observed decreasing trends of 10 to 25% in the ratio between hilly and upwind lowland precipitation, downwind of urban and industrial areas. We quantified the dependence of this ratio of the orographic-precipitation enhancement factor on the amounts of aerosols composed mostly of(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major contributing factor to hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Dgat), of which there are two isoforms (Dgat1 and Dgat2), catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis. We evaluated the metabolic impact of pharmacological reduction of DGAT1 and -2 expression in(More)
Among the many somatic genome alterations present in cancer cells, changes in DNA methylation may represent reversible "epigenetic" lesions, rather than irreversible "genetic" alterations. Cancer cell DNA is typically characterized by increases in the methylation of CpG dinucleotides clustered into CpG islands, near the transcriptional regulatory regions of(More)