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Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proposed to increase the resistance of plants to drought stress. The effect of foliar application of 0.1 μM 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on chlorophyll (Chl) content, photosystem 2 (PS 2) photochemistry, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, relative water content (RWC), proline content, and the antioxidant system in(More)
The production of ultrabright electron bunches using ionization injection triggered by two transversely colliding laser pulses inside a beam-driven plasma wake is examined via three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The relatively low intensity lasers are polarized along the wake axis and overlap with the wake for a very short time. The result is(More)
The evolution of beam phase space in ionization injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell simulations. The injection process involves both longitudinal and transverse phase mixing, leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and a slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this(More)
A new method capable of capturing coherent electric field structures propagating at nearly the speed of light in plasma with a time resolution as small as a few femtoseconds is proposed. This method uses a few femtoseconds long relativistic electron bunch to probe the wake produced in a plasma by an intense laser pulse or an ultra-short relativistic charged(More)
Width is one of the key parameters of a shelterbelt. Traditional methods to acquire this width are mainly based on field measurement, which is impractical for monitoring shelterbelts at regional scale. There are many studies analyzing linear objects, but they are not directly applicable to width detection of such objects. In this paper, we analyzed(More)
Various anionic polyacrylamide polymers (PAMs) are frequently used to improve soil properties and reduce erosion. However, the effects of their application on plant growth remain unclear. Aggregate-free loess with high water holding capacity was used as growing substrate to test the effects of two rates (10 and 40 kg ha−1) of a linear PAM on the growth of(More)
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