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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-β1 requires the binding of α(v) integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-β binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-β1(More)
The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family is crucial for immune homeostasis, cell death and inflammation. These cytokines are recognized by members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family of death receptors, including TNFR1 and TNFR2, and FAS and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors. Death receptor signalling requires death-domain-mediated(More)
We report the structure of an integrin with an alphaI domain, alpha(X)beta(2), the complement receptor type 4. It was earlier expected that a fixed orientation between the alphaI domain and the beta-propeller domain in which it is inserted would be required for allosteric signal transmission. However, the alphaI domain is highly flexible, enabling two betaI(More)
The 170 kDa glucose-regulated protein (grp170) is an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that shares some sequence homology with both the hsp70 and hsp110 heat shock protein (hsp) families, yet is representative of a third and unique family of stress proteins. Despite observations indicating important roles in normal cellular functions, the in vitro(More)
In this study, Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave pretreatment of rice straw. Experimental results show that microwave intensity (MI), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the enzymatic saccharification of rice straw. The maximal(More)
No prediction rule is currently available for advanced colorectal neoplasms, defined as invasive cancer, an adenoma of 10 mm or more, a villous adenoma, or an adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, in average-risk Chinese. In this study between 2006 and 2008, a total of 7,541 average-risk Chinese persons aged 40 years or older who had complete colonoscopy were(More)
Many Americans are exposed to low levels of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. It is unclear whether these exposures impact sperm production. We investigated whether there was an association between urinary OP insecticide metabolites and sperm concentration and motility in newly married men from a rural area of eastern People's Republic of China.(More)
The widely conserved multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors modulates bacterial detoxification in response to diverse antibiotics, toxic chemicals or both. The natural inducer for Escherichia coli MarR, the prototypical transcription repressor within this family, remains unknown. Here we show that copper signaling(More)
The metallothionein-2 (MT-2) gene was isolated from the mandarin fish, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China, by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of MT-2 comprised 60 amino acids and showed approximately 62.3% identity to human metallothionein. Its promoter region was amplified by thermal(More)
Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) and adhesion assays show that alpha(X)beta(2) integrin activation requires headpiece opening as well as extension. An extension-inducing Fab to the beta(2) leg, in combination with representative activating and inhibitory Fabs, were examined for effect on the equilibrium between the open and closed headpiece(More)