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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-β1 requires the binding of α(v) integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-β binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-β1(More)
Frequent gene amplification of the receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride channel TMEM16A (TAOS2 or ANO1) has been reported in several malignancies. However, its involvement in human tumorigenesis has not been previously studied. Here, we show a functional role for TMEM16A in tumor growth. We found TMEM16A overexpression in 80% of head and neck(More)
We report the structure of an integrin with an alphaI domain, alpha(X)beta(2), the complement receptor type 4. It was earlier expected that a fixed orientation between the alphaI domain and the beta-propeller domain in which it is inserted would be required for allosteric signal transmission. However, the alphaI domain is highly flexible, enabling two betaI(More)
There are few articles in the literature comparing outcomes between anterior and posterior instrumentation in the management of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB). Between January 2004 and December 2009, 217 adult patients, average age 39 (range 16–67) years with thoracic and lumbar spinal TB were treated by anterior radical debridement and fusion(More)
Technologies for introducing molecules into living cells are vital for probing the physical properties and biochemical interactions that govern the cell's behavior. Here, we report the development of a nanoscale cell injection system (termed the nanoinjector) that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. A single multiwalled carbon nanotube(More)
No prediction rule is currently available for advanced colorectal neoplasms, defined as invasive cancer, an adenoma of 10 mm or more, a villous adenoma, or an adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, in average-risk Chinese. In this study between 2006 and 2008, a total of 7,541 average-risk Chinese persons aged 40 years or older who had complete colonoscopy were(More)
In this study, Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave pretreatment of rice straw. Experimental results show that microwave intensity (MI), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the enzymatic saccharification of rice straw. The maximal(More)
This report defines a novel approach to heat shock protein vaccine formulation that takes advantage of the chaperoning property of heat shock protein hsp110 to efficiently bind a large protein substrate (specifically, human melanoma-associated antigen gp100) during heat shock. We demonstrate that hsp110 can form chaperone complexes with gp100 and prevent(More)
The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family is crucial for immune homeostasis, cell death and inflammation. These cytokines are recognized by members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family of death receptors, including TNFR1 and TNFR2, and FAS and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors. Death receptor signalling requires death-domain-mediated(More)
We report the discovery that boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), isosteres of CNTs with unique physical properties, are inherently noncytotoxic. Furthermore, we developed a biomemetic coating strategy to interface BNNTs with proteins and cells. Finally, we showed that BNNTs can deliver DNA oligomers to the interior of cells with no apparent toxicity. This work(More)