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In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb Cistanches salsa, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We confirmed that exposure to MPTP in mice leads to permanent behavioral deficits and depletion of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by neuroinflammation and demyelination that are mediated by T cells. The prolonged survival of autoreactive T cells acts as a primary event to trigger an inflammatory cascade that mediates myelin loss and clinical relapse in MS. Recently, T cell survival has been shown to be modulated by the(More)
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been employed to create a Parkinson's disease-like model in both rodents and primates based primarily on its ability to create a striatal dopamine deficit due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. The present study was carried out to determine the possible(More)
Chronic dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in Parkinson's disease (PD) often leads to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), mediated by DA receptors. However, mechanisms underlying LID occurrence are still unclear. Regulator of G-protein signaling RGS9, a member of the RGS(More)
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