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PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glutamate receptor function at excitatory synapses. Recent studies demonstrating the rapid regulation of AMPA receptor function during synaptic plasticity have suggested that AMPA receptor interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins(More)
We have determined the transverse chromatic aberration of the human eye by measuring the apparent offset of a two-color vernier viewed foveally through a displaced, pinhole aperture. For the same subjects, we also determined the longitudinal chromatic aberration for foveal viewing by the method of best focus. In both cases, the results were closely(More)
Many excitatory synapses are thought to be postsynaptically 'silent', possessing functional NMDA but lacking functional AMPA glutamate receptors. The acquisition of AMPA receptors at silent synapses may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. Here we characterize a possible morphological correlate of silent synapses in cultured(More)
Pax6 plays a key role in visual system development throughout the metazoa and the function of Pax6 is evolutionarily conserved. However, the regulation of Pax6 expression during eye development is largely unknown. We have identified two physically distinct promoters in mouse Pax6, P0 and P1, that direct differential Pax6 expression in the developing eye.(More)
Evidence indicates that both necrotic and apoptotic cell death contribute to tissue injury and neurological dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Caspases have been implicated as important mediators of apoptosis following acute central nervous system insults. We investigated whether caspase-1 and caspase-3 are involved in spinal cord injury-mediated(More)
Deficits of cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by receptor binding assays. Little is known about the receptor subunit specificity influenced by AD, and it might be of importance for therapeutic strategies. In the present study, the protein levels of nAChR alpha3, alpha4, alpha7, and beta2(More)
Ionotropic receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are important to inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian retina, mediating GABAA and GABAC responses. In many species, these responses are blocked by the convulsant picrotoxinin (PTX), although the mechanism of block is not fully understood. In contrast, GABAC responses in the rat retina are(More)
Galaninergic mechanisms related to 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat were analysed using electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Galanin caused a dose-dependent hyperpolarization accompanied by a decrease in membrane resistance in most 5-hydroxytryptamine-sensitive dorsal raphe neurons. The(More)
In addition to triggering the activation of B- or T-cell antigen receptors, the binding of a ligand to its receptor at the cell surface can sometimes determine the physiological outcome of interactions between antigen-presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes. The protein SLAM (also known as CDw150), which is present on the surface of B and T cells, forms such(More)
To understand the role of opioids and their receptors in chronic pain following peripheral nerve injury, we have studied the mu-opioid receptor in rat and monkey lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglion neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord under normal circumstances and after peripheral axotomy. Our results show that many small neurons in(More)