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Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses play critical roles in motor learning. The 1 Hz stimulation at PF-PC synapses induces a postsynaptically expressed LTP that requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) transient, phosphatases, and nitric oxide (NO). However, the mechanism underlying 1(More)
This paper presents a DFT (design for test) solution which combines boundary-scan and full-scan together in SoC testability design. Using this method, full scan test and boundary scan test can be easily performed just through the common IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) access interface. Our final goal is not only to implement fewer test-pin-count, but rather to provide(More)
BACKGROUND Zinc distributes widely in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex. The dynamic balance of zinc is critical for neuronal functions. Zinc modulates the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) through the direct inhibition and various intracellular signaling pathways. Abnormal NMDAR activities have(More)
The astroglial cell-specific glutamate transporter subtype 2 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2, GLT1) plays an important role in excitotoxicity that develops after damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is incurred. Both the protein kinase C signaling pathway and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway have been suggested to participate in the(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are expressed in islets and insulinoma cells and involved in insulin secretion. However, the exact roles that iGluRs play in β cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GluR2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) were expressed in mouse β cells. Glutamate application(More)
BACKGROUND Depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse is an endocannabinoid-mediated short-term retrograde plasticity. Intracellular Ca(2+) elevation is critical for the endocannabinoid production and DSE. Nevertheless, how elevated Ca(2+) leads to DSE is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Clinical and laboratory studies have suggested that multi-targeting approaches against neoplastic cells could help to increase patient survival and might reduce the emergence of cells that are resistant to single-target inhibitors. Artesunate (ART) is one of the most potent(More)
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lipidosis characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Although several studies have revealed unusual accumulation of unesterfied cholesterol in astrocytic lysosome of NPC, pathophysiological basis of cerebellar neuronal dysfunction remains unclear. We compared parallel fiber-Purkinje cell(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the miRNA profile in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and to explore the functions of characteristic BCSC miRNAs. METHODS We isolated ESA+CD44+CD24-/low BCSCs from MCF-7 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). A human breast cancer xenograft assay was performed to validate the stem cell properties(More)
Pancreatic beta cells act as glucose sensors, in which intracellular ATP ([ATP]i) are altered with glucose concentration change. The characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels under different [ATP]i remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that increasing [ATP]i within a certain range of concentrations (2–8 mM) significantly enhanced the voltage-gated(More)