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Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
The TNF-associated factor (TRAF) family, the crucial adaptor group in innate immune signaling, increased to 24 in amphioxus, the oldest lineage of the Chordata. To address how these expanded molecules evolved to adapt to the changing TRAF mediated signaling pathways, here we conducted genomic and functional comparisons of four distinct amphioxus TRAF groups(More)
Among five Toll/IL-1R resistance adaptors, sterile alpha and Toll/IL-1R resistance motif containing protein (SARM) is the only one conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. However, its physiologic roles are hardly understood, and its involvement in TLR signaling remains debatable. In this study, we first demonstrated a predominant expression of(More)
Co-option of RAG1 and RAG2 for antigen receptor gene assembly by V(D)J recombination was a crucial event in the evolution of jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. RAG1/2 are proposed to have arisen from a transposable element, but definitive evidence for this is lacking. Here, we report the discovery of ProtoRAG, a DNA transposon family from lancelets, the(More)
The MyD88-independent pathway, one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes, is thought to be a vertebrate innovation. However, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor, designated bbtTICAM, which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus, links this pathway to invertebrates. The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate(More)
INTRODUCTION The common surgery for venous leakage was not very successful; unsatisfactory long-term results have reduced the indications for venous surgery for erectile dysfunction (ED). AIMS To assess the outcomes of embedding the deep dorsal vein of the penis (EDDVP), a new surgical technique used in patients with penile deep dorsal venous leakage of(More)
In the past decade, ubiquitination has been well documented to have multifaceted roles in regulating NF-κB activation in mammals. However, its function, especially how deubiquitinating enzymes balance the NF-κB activation, remains largely elusive in invertebrates. Investigating bbtA20 and its binding proteins, bbt A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (bbtABIN1)(More)
Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like PPP1R13L, also coined iASPP, was found high expression in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. In previous research, in vitro and in vivo RNAi mediated by artificial lentiviral shRNAs which proved that suppression of iASPP decrease the proliferation of cancer cells. Endogenous interference RNAs, microRNAs(More)
AIM To investigate the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its alteration after exenatide treatment. METHODS PCOS rat model was established by dehydroepiandrosterone induction. The animals were randomly divided into exenatide treatment group (EX group, n = 10), metformin treatment group(More)