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Genome-wide association studies have recently identified at least 15 susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To confirm additional risk loci, we selected SNPs from 2,466 regions that showed nominal evidence of association to SLE (P < 0.05) in a genome-wide study and genotyped them in an independent sample of 1,963 cases and 4,329(More)
To determine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), we inactivated Fgf4 and Fgf8 in AER cells or their precursors at different stages of mouse limb development. We show that FGF4 and FGF8 regulate cell number in the nascent limb bud and are required for survival of cells located far from the AER. On the(More)
Since the discovery of insulin nearly 70 years ago, there has been no problem more fundamental to diabetes research than understanding how insulin works at the cellular level. Insulin binds to the alpha subunit of the insulin receptor which activates the tyrosine kinase in the beta subunit, but the molecular events linking the receptor kinase to(More)
In this paper, we tackle challenges in migrating enterprise services into hybrid cloud-based deployments, where enterprise operations are partly hosted on-premise and partly in the cloud. Such hybrid architectures enable enterprises to benefit from cloud-based architectures, while honoring application performance requirements, and privacy restrictions on(More)
The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus,(More)
IRS-1 is a major insulin receptor substrate which may play an important role in insulin signal transmission. The mRNA for IRS-1 in rat cells and tissues is about 9.5 kilobases (kb). Rat liver IRS-1 was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (CHO/IRS-1). Although its calculated molecular mass is 131 kDa, IRS-1 from quiescent cells migrated(More)
Alveologenesis is the final step of lung maturation, which subdivides the alveolar region of the lung into smaller units called alveoli. Each of the nascent dividers serves as a new gas-exchange surface, and collectively they drastically increase the surface area for breathing. Disruption of alveologenesis results in simplification of alveoli, as is seen in(More)
The antifungal activity of sodium silicate on Fusarium sulphureum and its inhibitory effect on dry rot of potato tubers were investigated. Sodium silicate strongly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth. Morphological changes in sodium silicate-treated hyphae such as mycelium sparsity and asymmetry, hyphal swelling, curling, and cupped shape were(More)
DICER is a key enzyme that processes microRNA and small interfering RNA precursors into their short mature forms, enabling them to regulate gene expression. Only a single Dicer gene exists in the mouse genome, and it is broadly expressed in developing tissues. Dicer-null mutants die before gastrulation. Therefore, to study Dicer function in the later event(More)
Angiotensin II (AII), acting via its G-protein linked receptor, is an important regulator of cardiac, vascular, and renal function. Following injection of AII into rats, we find that there is also a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the major insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) in the heart. This phenomenon appears to involve JAK2 tyrosine(More)