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To determine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), we inactivated Fgf4 and Fgf8 in AER cells or their precursors at different stages of mouse limb development. We show that FGF4 and FGF8 regulate cell number in the nascent limb bud and are required for survival of cells located far from the AER. On the(More)
Cloud computing is getting popular and IT giants such as Google, Amazon, Microsoft, IBM have started their cloud computing infrastructure. However, current cloud implementations are often isolated from other cloud implementations. This paper gives an overview survey of current cloud computing architectures, discusses issues that current cloud computing(More)
We present RenderAnts, the first system that enables interactive Reyes rendering on GPUs. Taking RenderMan scenes and shaders as input, our system first compiles RenderMan shaders to GPU shaders. Then all stages of the basic Reyes pipeline, including bounding/splitting, dicing, shading, sampling, compositing and filtering, are executed on GPUs using(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Keywords: Fuzzy k-nearest neighbor method Support vector machine Feature extraction(More)
Anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the vertebrate limb is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, and the precise restriction of Shh expression to the posterior limb bud is essential for its polarizing effect. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, a key control of proximal-distal (P-D) limb outgrowth, is known to promote Shh expression in the(More)
In the larval salivary glands of C. tentans, it is possible to visualize by electron microscopy how Balbiani ring (BR) pre-mRNA associates with proteins to form pre-mRNP particles, how these particles move to and through the nuclear pore, and how the BR RNA is engaged in the formation of giant polysomes in the cytoplasm. Here, we study C. tentans hrp36, an(More)
During organ formation and regeneration a proper balance between promoting and restricting growth is critical to achieve stereotypical size. Limb bud outgrowth is driven by signals in a positive feedback loop involving fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) genes, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gremlin1 (Grem1). Precise termination of these signals is essential to(More)
Tubby-like protein 3 (TULP3) is required for proper embryonic development in mice. Disruption of mouse Tulp3 results in morphological defects in the embryonic craniofacial regions, the spinal neural tube and the limbs. Here, we show that TULP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the mouse. In Tulp3 mutants, ventral(More)