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To determine the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), we inactivated Fgf4 and Fgf8 in AER cells or their precursors at different stages of mouse limb development. We show that FGF4 and FGF8 regulate cell number in the nascent limb bud and are required for survival of cells located far from the AER. On the(More)
Anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the vertebrate limb is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, and the precise restriction of Shh expression to the posterior limb bud is essential for its polarizing effect. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, a key control of proximal-distal (P-D) limb outgrowth, is known to promote Shh expression in the(More)
Cloud computing is getting popular and IT giants such as Google, Amazon, Microsoft, IBM have started their cloud computing infrastructure. However, current cloud implementations are often isolated from other cloud implementations. This paper gives an overview survey of current cloud computing architectures, discusses issues that current cloud computing(More)
During organ formation and regeneration a proper balance between promoting and restricting growth is critical to achieve stereotypical size. Limb bud outgrowth is driven by signals in a positive feedback loop involving fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) genes, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gremlin1 (Grem1). Precise termination of these signals is essential to(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signaling through FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) is required for lung initiation. While studies indicate that Fgf10 and Fgfr2 are also important at later stages of lung development, their roles in early branching events remain unclear. We addressed this question through conditional inactivation of both genes in mouse subsequent(More)
Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are important components of the skeletal muscle regenerative environment. Whether FAPs support muscle regeneration or promote fibro-adipogenic degeneration is emerging as a key determinant in the pathogenesis of muscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the molecular mechanism that controls(More)
DICER is a key enzyme that processes microRNA and small interfering RNA precursors into their short mature forms, enabling them to regulate gene expression. Only a single Dicer gene exists in the mouse genome, and it is broadly expressed in developing tissues. Dicer-null mutants die before gastrulation. Therefore, to study Dicer function in the later event(More)
Notch-mediated induction of Nodal at the vertebrate node is a critical step in initiating left-right (LR) asymmetry. In mice and zebrafish we show that Baf60c, a subunit of the Swi/Snf-like BAF chromatin remodeling complex, is essential for establishment of LR asymmetry. Baf60c knockdown mouse embryos fail to activate Nodal at the node and also have(More)
In this paper, we present an effective and efficient diagnosis system using fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (FKNN) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis. The proposed FKNN-based system is compared with the support vector machines (SVM) based approaches. In order to further improve the diagnosis accuracy for detection of PD, the principle component analysis was(More)