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Emergence of new, economically important plant-pathogenic species in the mostly saprophytic genus Streptomyces involves acquisition of a large, mobile pathogenicity island (PAI). Biosynthetic genes for a phytotoxin, thaxtomin A, are contained on this PAI. The Nec1 protein has necrogenic activity on excised potato tuber tissue, and the encoding gene is(More)
Integrin receptors are mediators of cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. Biochemical and immunocytochemical evidence shows that the platelet integrin receptor alpha IIb beta 3 is present on the cell surface, at focal adhesion plaques and in the perinuclear region of metastatic B16a murine melanoma cells. Antibody to the fibronectin receptor(More)
The most abundant immune cell type is the neutrophil, a key first responder after pathogen invasion. Neutrophil numbers in the periphery are tightly regulated to prevent opportunistic infections and aberrant inflammation. In healthy individuals, more than 1 × 10⁹ neutrophils per kilogram body weight are released from the bone marrow every 24 hours. To(More)
In vitro tumor cell-platelet interaction was examined using B16 amelanotic (B16a) melanoma cells. These tumor cells express the alpha IIb beta 3-type cytoadhesin. Aggregation studies demonstrated that tumor cell surface alpha IIb beta 3 mediates the recognition of platelets since pretreatment of tumor cells with antibody against alpha IIb beta 3 prevents(More)
The fatty acyl composition of phospholipids determines the biophysical character of membranes and impacts the function of membrane proteins. Here, we define a nuclear receptor pathway for the dynamic modulation of membrane composition in response to changes in cellular lipid metabolism. Ligand activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) preferentially drives the(More)
Small-molecule inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors have failed to show efficacy for brain cancers, potentially due to their inability to achieve sufficient drug levels in the CNS. Targeting non-oncogene tumor co-dependencies provides an alternative approach, particularly if drugs with high brain penetration can be identified. Here we demonstrate(More)
Human keratinocytes express a particulate transglutaminase that can be released from the membrane by limited proteolysis with trypsin or plasmin to yield a form that is congruent to 80 kDa. The enzyme from cultured cells was also releasable by endogenous proteolysis to yield a catalytically active fragment of congruent to 80 kDa. Endogenous release was(More)
The liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathway is an important modulator of atherosclerosis, but the relative importance of the two LXRs in atheroprotection is incompletely understood. We show here that LXRα, the dominant LXR isotype expressed in liver, plays a particularly important role in whole-body sterol homeostasis. In the context of the ApoE(-/-)(More)
The liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of lipid homeostasis that also have potent anti-inflammatory effects. The molecular basis for their anti-inflammatory effects is incompletely understood, but has been proposed to involve the indirect tethering of LXRs to inflammatory gene promoters. Here we demonstrate that the ability of LXRs to(More)
The role of specific phospholipids (PLs) in lipid transport has been difficult to assess due to an inability to selectively manipulate membrane composition in vivo. Here we show that the phospholipid remodeling enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) is a critical determinant of triglyceride (TG) secretion due to its unique ability to(More)