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The kidney is formed from two tissue populations derived from the intermediate mesoderm, the ureteric bud, and the metanephric mesenchyme. Metanephric mesenchyme is a pluripotent renal stem population, and conversion of renal mesenchyme into epithelia depends on the ureteric bud in vivo and in vitro. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been induced to(More)
Stroke is a major cause of permanent neurologic damage, with few effective treatments available to restore lost function. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to generate all cell types in vitro and can be generated from a stroke patient. Therefore, iPSCs are attractive donor sources of genetically identical “patient-specific” cells to(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous(More)
The compensatory angiogenesis that occurs after cerebral ischemia increases blood flow to the injured area and limits extension of the ischemic penumbra. In this way, it improves the local blood supply. Fostering compensatory angiogenesis is an effective treatment for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, angiogenesis in the adult organism is a(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is emerging as an important contributor to apoptosis in various cell types. However, overexpression of AChE does not initiate apoptosis, and cells which express AChE at basal levels grow normally, suggesting that AChE may function differently between normal and apoptotic conditions. In this study, we determined that an(More)
The pHs of extracellular fluids (ECFs) in humans are consistently maintained at 7.35 to 7.45 in physiological conditions. Pathological changes, including infarction, tumourigenesis and inflammation, commonly result in decreases in the ECF pH in the affected tissues. In this study, we report that proliferation is promoted and apoptosis is inhibited by(More)
Dynamics are playing an increasingly important role in many engineering domains as these systems become more active and autonomous. Designing a dynamic engineering system can be challenging. In this thesis, both the problem formulation and solution methods will be discussed for designing a dynamic engineering system. A case is made for the inclusion of both(More)
Andrographolide has a low aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability, which limits its clinical application. Reform the dosage forms of andrographolide to improve its aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability. The formulation, characterisation, stability, anti-inflammatory effect, pharmacokinetics and oral toxicity of andrographolide-loaded(More)
Chronic skin wounds represent one of the most common and disabling complications of diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are precursors of endothelial cells and can enhance diabetic wound repair by facilitating neovascularization. Recent studies indicate that the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and(More)
In addition to terminating neurotransmission by hydrolyzing acetylcholine, synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChES) has been found to have a pro-apoptotic role. However, the underlying mechanism has rarely been investigated. Here, we report a nuclear translocation-dependent role for AChES as an apoptotic deoxyribonuclease (DNase). AChES polypeptide binds to(More)