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The review paper by Emanuel et al. (1994; hereafter ENB) provides a stimulating and at times provocative overview of the dynamics of convecting systems and their interaction with larger-scale circulations. As such it prompted us to organize a semester-long seminar devoted to the study of these interactions, and to ENB's ideas in particular. The following(More)
The atom-bond connectivity (ABC) index of a graph (,) G V E is defined as () [ () () 2]/[ () ()] uv E ABC G d u d v d u d v  ¦ , where () d u denotes the degree of vertex u of G. This recently introduced molecular structure descriptor found interesting applications in the study of the thermodynamic stability of acyclic saturated hydrocarbons, and the(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) induces a series of signaling cascades and leads to activation of multiple transcription factors, including NF-kappaB. Although the mechanism of TCR-induced NF-kappaB activation is not fully understood, recent studies indicate that Bcl10 and CARMA1, two adaptor/scaffold proteins, play essential roles in mediating TCR-induced NF-kappaB(More)
The caspase-recruitment domain-containing adaptor protein CARD9 regulates the innate signaling responses to fungal infection. Here we show that CARD9 is required for innate immune responses against intracellular pathogens. We generated Card9(-/-) mice and found that CARD9-deficient macrophages had defects in activation of the kinases p38 and Jnk but not of(More)
The pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and Dectin-1 play key roles in coordinating the responses of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) to fungi. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines is instructed by signals from both TLR2 and Dectin-1. A recent report identified a role for CARD9 in innate anti-fungal responses, demonstrating CARD9-Bcl10-mediated(More)
Stimulation of cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) triggers a recruitment of various signaling molecules, such as RIP, to the TNFalpha receptor 1 complex, leading to activation of NF-kappaB. Previous studies indicate that RIP plays an essential role for TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, but the molecular mechanism by which RIP mediates TNFalpha(More)
CARMA1 mediates T cell receptor (TCR)-induced NF-kappaB activation. However, how TCR links to CARMA1 in the signaling pathway is not clear. Here, we show that CARMA1 is inducibly phosphorylated after TCR-CD28 costimulation. This phosphorylation is likely induced by PKCtheta, since PKCtheta induces phosphorylation of CARMA1 in vitro and in vivo. Our results(More)
The biological activities of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 have been widely studied. However, comparatively little is known about how IL-17 expression is controlled. Here, we examined the basis for transcriptional regulation of the human IL-17 gene. IL-17 secretion was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following anti-CD3(More)
Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry(More)
Glutamine has been implicated as an immunomodulatory nutrient, but how glutamine uptake is mediated during T cell activation is poorly understood. We have shown that naive T cell activation is coupled with rapid glutamine uptake, which depended on the amino acid transporter ASCT2. ASCT2 deficiency impaired the induction of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells(More)