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A new class of metrics appropriate for measuring effective similarity relations between sequences, say one type of similarity per metric, is studied. We propose a new "normalized information distance", based on the noncomputable notion of Kolmogorov complexity, and show that it minorizes every metric in the class (that is, it is universal in that it(More)
Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 × raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation(More)
Identity is a central concept in the social sciences. In this study, we present a laboratory experiment that measures the effects of induced group identity on participant social preferences. We find that when participants are matched with an ingroup member (as opposed to an outgroup member) they show a 47% increase in charity concerns when they have a(More)
The success and popularity of social network systems, such as del.icio.us, Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube, have generated many interesting and challenging problems to the research community. Among others, discovering social interests shared by groups of users is very important because it helps to connect people with common interests and encourages people to(More)
Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the origination of new genes. Despite extensive case studies, the general principles governing this fundamental process are still unclear at the whole-genome level. Here, we unveil genome-wide patterns for the mutational mechanisms leading to new genes and their subsequent lineage-specific evolution at(More)
The microRNA miR-7 is perfectly conserved from annelids to humans, and yet some of the genes that it regulates in Drosophila are not regulated in mammals. We have explored the role of lineage restricted targets, using Drosophila, in order to better understand the evolutionary significance of microRNA-target relationships. From studies of two well(More)
Mounting concerns over variability, defects and noise motivate a new approach for digital circuitry: stochastic logic, that is to say, logic that operates on probabilistic signals and so can cope with errors and uncertainty. Techniques for probabilistic analysis of circuits and systems are well established. We advocate a strategy for synthesis. In prior(More)
A critical question about signal transduction is how weak or transient activation of signaling pathways achieves a robust and long-term switch in gene expression. We report that a microRNA is part of a mechanism that makes cells sensitive to signals in the Drosophila eye. Expression of miR-7 is activated in cells as they begin differentiating into(More)
Small RNAs direct RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) to regulate stability and translation of mRNAs. RISCs associated with target mRNAs often accumulate in discrete cytoplasmic foci known as GW-bodies. However, RISC proteins can associate with membrane compartments such as the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that GW-bodies are associated(More)
Epigenetic regulation in insects may have effects on diverse biological processes. Here we survey the methylome of a model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori, at single-base resolution using Illumina high-throughput bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-Seq). We conservatively estimate that 0.11% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines, all of which probably occur(More)