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A new class of metrics appropriate for measuring effective similarity relations between sequences, say one type of similarity per metric, is studied. We propose a new "normalized information distance", based on the noncomputable notion of Kolmogorov complexity, and show that it minorizes every metric in the class (that is, it is universal in that it(More)
A critical question about signal transduction is how weak or transient activation of signaling pathways achieves a robust and long-term switch in gene expression. We report that a microRNA is part of a mechanism that makes cells sensitive to signals in the Drosophila eye. Expression of miR-7 is activated in cells as they begin differentiating into(More)
—Mounting concerns over variability, defects and noise motivate a new approach for digital circuitry: stochastic logic, that is to say, logic that operates on probabilistic signals and so can cope with errors and uncertainty. Techniques for probabilistic analysis of circuits and systems are well established. We advocate a strategy for synthesis. In prior(More)
PURPOSE Erlotinib is a potent reversible HER1/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor with single-agent activity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib was combined with chemotherapy to determine if it could improve the outcome of patients with NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS TRIBUTE randomly assigned patients(More)
Recent trust research in the information systems (IS) field has described trust as a primary predictor of technology usage and a fundamental construct for understanding user perceptions of technology. Initial trust formation is particularly relevant in an IS context, as users must overcome perceptions of risk and uncertainty before using a novel technology.(More)
Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene(More)
BACKGROUND We report the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic (As) metabolites in 233 residents exposed to 20, 90, or 160 microg/L inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water from three villages in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China, that formed one control and two exposed groups. METHODS We used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry(More)
Memory hardware reliability is an indispensable part of whole-system dependability. This paper presents the collection of realistic memory hardware error traces (including transient and non-transient errors) from production computer systems with more than 800 GB memory for around nine months. Detailed information on the error addresses allows us to identify(More)
The microRNA miR-7 is perfectly conserved from annelids to humans, and yet some of the genes that it regulates in Drosophila are not regulated in mammals. We have explored the role of lineage restricted targets, using Drosophila, in order to better understand the evolutionary significance of microRNA-target relationships. From studies of two well(More)