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A new class of metrics appropriate for measuring effective similarity relations between sequences, say one type of similarity per metric, is studied. We propose a new "normalized information distance", based on the noncomputable notion of Kolmogorov complexity, and show that it minorizes every metric in the class (that is, it is universal in that it(More)
Recent trust research in the information systems (IS) field has described trust as a primary predictor of technology usage and a fundamental construct for understanding user perceptions of technology. Initial trust formation is particularly relevant in an IS context, as users must overcome perceptions of risk and uncertainty before using a novel technology.(More)
—Mounting concerns over variability, defects and noise motivate a new approach for digital circuitry: stochastic logic, that is to say, logic that operates on probabilistic signals and so can cope with errors and uncertainty. Techniques for probabilistic analysis of circuits and systems are well established. We advocate a strategy for synthesis. In prior(More)
Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene(More)
Identity is a central concept in the social sciences. In this study, we present a laboratory experiment that measures the effects of induced group identity on participant social preferences. We find that when participants are matched with an ingroup member (as opposed to an outgroup member) they show a 47% increase in charity concerns when they have a(More)
The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art(More)
Recent studies have showed that erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotectant for central nerve system neurons in addition to being a hematopoietic cytokine in response to hypoxia. In this study, we investigate the role of the EPO/EPO receptor (EPOR) system in the rat retina after ocular hypertension injury that mimics glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure(More)
Memory hardware reliability is an indispensable part of whole-system dependability. This paper presents the collection of realistic memory hardware error traces (including transient and non-transient errors) from production computer systems with more than 800 GB memory for around nine months. Detailed information on the error addresses allows us to identify(More)