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The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing(More)
Calcium is recognized as an important intracellular messenger with a pivotal role in the regulation of many cytosolic and nuclear processes. Gangliosides of various types, especially GM1, are known to have a role in some aspects of Ca2+ regulation, operating through a variety of mechanisms that are gradually coming to light. The present study provides(More)
Transcriptional networks, which are initiated by secreted proteins, cooperate with each other to orchestrate eye development. The establishment of dorsal/ventral polarity, especially dorsal specification in the optic vesicle, is poorly understood at a molecular and cellular level. Here, we show that COUP-TFI (Nr2f1) and COUP-TFII (Nr2f2) are highly(More)
The Drosophila giant fiber jump-and-flight escape response is a model for genetic analysis of both the physiology and the plasticity of a sensorimotor behavioral pathway. We previously established the electrically induced giant fiber response in intact tethered flies as a model for habituation, a form of nonassociative learning. Here, we show that the rate(More)
Maintaining a constant number and ratio of immune cells is one critical aspect of the tight regulation of immune homeostasis. Breakdown of this balance will lead to autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) was reported to regulate the growth, survival, and differentiation of many cells. However, its(More)
Knock-out (KO) mice lacking gangliotetraose gangliosides attributable to disruption of the gene for GM2/GD2 synthase [GalNAcT (UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:GM3/GD3 beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.92 [EC])] are revealing key neural functions for the complex gangliosides of brain. This study has found such animals to be highly susceptible to(More)
Our previous study showed an impaired regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from neonatal mice lacking GM2, GD2 and all gangliotetraose gangliosides, due to disruption of the GM2/GD2 synthase (GalNAc-T) gene. In the presence of depolarizing concentration (55 mM) K(+), these cells showed persistent elevation of(More)
The Drosophila vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene (Vacht) is nested within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase gene (Cha). To isolate Vacht mutants, we performed an F(2) genetic screen and identified mutations that failed to complement Df(3R)Cha(5), a deletion lacking Cha and the surrounding genes. Of these mutations, three mapped to a(More)