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Norrin is a cysteine-rich growth factor that is required for angiogenesis in the eye, ear, brain, and female reproductive organs. It functions as an atypical Wnt ligand by specifically binding to the Frizzled 4 (Fz4) receptor. Here we report the crystal structure of Norrin, which reveals a unique dimeric structure with each monomer adopting a conserved(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin,(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies have reported increased mortality risk associated with heat waves. However, few have assessed the health impacts at a nation scale in a developing country. This study examines the mortality effects of heat waves in China and explores whether the effects are modified by individual-level and community-level characteristics. METHODS(More)
Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. However, there are few published studies comparing the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral instrumented MIS TLIF. Sixty-five patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study.(More)
Retrieval queries that combine structural constraints with keyword search are placing new challenges on retrieval systems. This paper presents TReX—a new retrieval system for XML. TReX can efficiently return either all the answers to a given query or only the top-k answers. In this paper, we discuss our participation in the annual Initiative for the(More)
Clustering for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an effective scheme in utilizing sensor nodes energy and extending the network lifetime, while coverage preservation is one of the most essential issues to guarantee the quality of service (QoS). However, the coverage problem has not been well understood so far. For mission-critical applications of networks,(More)
Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an emerging laparoscopic procedure previously used for cholecystectomy and appendectomy. However, few studies have examined LESS liver resection, and its benefits require investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LESS liver resection. From December 2009 to October 2010, 12(More)
Due to the imbalance of energy consumption of nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), some local nodes die prematurely, which causes the network partitions and then shortens the lifetime of the network. The phenomenon is called “hot spot” or “energy hole” problem. For this problem, an energy-aware distributed unequal clustering protocol (EADUC) in(More)
Multidrug resistance is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. The overproduced P-glycoprotein that extrudes anticancer drugs from cells, is the most common mechanism detected in multidrug-resistant cancers. Direct measurement of cellular efflux of tumors in vivo, rather than estimation of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein levels in samples(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, which interacts with diverse signal molecules and is essential for many physiological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, inflammation, and blood coagulation. D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Glce) is a crucial enzyme in HS synthesis,(More)