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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rheology evolution of sludge through high-solid anaerobic digestion (AD) and its dependency on sludge retention time (SRT) and temperature of AD reactor. The operation performance of high-solid AD reactors were also studied. The results showed that sludge became much more flowable after high-solid AD. It(More)
We show that highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass nanowire waveguides with near-zero anomalous dispersion should be capable of generating correlated photon-pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing at frequencies detuned by over 17 THz from the pump where Raman noise is absent. In this region we predict a photon pair correlation of >100, a figure of merit >10(More)
We report first observation of net-gain from an optical parametric amplifier in a planar waveguide. This was achieved in a low-loss As(2)S(3) planar waveguide, with a strong nonlinearity (gamma approximately 10 /W/m) and tailored anomalous dispersion yielding efficient Raman-assisted four-wave mixing at telecom wavelengths. The experiments were in good(More)
It has been a long-standing challenge to produce air-stable few- or monolayer samples of phosphorene because thin phosphorene films degrade rapidly in ambient conditions. Here we demonstrate a new highly controllable method for fabricating high quality, air-stable phosphorene films with a designated number of layers ranging from a few down to monolayer. Our(More)
We demonstrate a high-Q(approximately 125,000) photonic crystal (PhC) cavity formed using a postprocessing optical exposure technique where the refractive index of a photosensitive chalcogenide PhC is modified locally. The evolution of the cavity resonances was monitored in situ during writing using a tapered fiber evanescent coupling system, and the Q of(More)
We report the characteristics of low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for sensing in the mid-infrared (MIR). The waveguides consisted of a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄Se₆₄.₅ rib waveguide core with a 10nm fluoropolymer coating on a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄S₆₄.₅ bottom cladding and were fabricated by thermal evaporation, photolithography and ICP plasma etching. Over most of the functional(More)
Three-photon absorption (3PA) has been observed as the dominant mechanism for nonlinear absorption in wide-bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H-W) at 1.55 μm. The nonlinear index n2 and 3PA coefficient were measured to be 22 × 10(-17)m(2)/W and 5.0 × 10(-26) m(3)/W(2) respectively at 1.55 μm by using the z-scan method. This indicates that the(More)
The fabrication and characterization of loss-compensated dispersion-engineered nonlinear As(2)S(3) on Er:TeO2 waveguides is reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The hybrid waveguide is a strip loaded structure made from an Er-doped TeO2 slab and an etched As(2)S(3) strip. Almost complete loss compensation is demonstrated with 1480 nm(More)
We investigate the photosensitive and thermo-optic nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal (PhC) cavities at telecommunications wavelengths. We observe a photosensitive refractive index change in AMTIR-1 (Ge(33)As(12)Se(55)) material in the near-infrared, which is enhanced by light localization in the PhC cavity and manifests in a(More)