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Elevated levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP, c-di-GMP, promote transition of bacteria from single motile cells to surface-attached multicellular communities. Here we describe a post-translational mechanism by which c-di-GMP initiates this transition in enteric bacteria. High levels of c-di-GMP induce the counterclockwise bias in Escherichia(More)
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a perennial plant of Lamiaceae, accumulates abietane-type diterpenoids of tanshinones in root, which have been used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat neuroasthenic insomnia and cardiovascular diseases. However, to date the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones is only partially elucidated and the mechanism for their(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves motor performance in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. To evaluate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS on impaired motor behavior, we studied improvements in motor performance after delivery of unilateral stimulation to the STN in rats with mild and severe lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system caused by(More)
Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Gap junctions play important roles in the regulation of tumor cell phenotypes and mediation of the bystander effect in cancer therapy. Because the degradation of gap junction proteins involves the proteasome, we speculated that(More)
Cutinized and suberized cell walls in plants constitute physiologically important environment interfaces. They act as barriers limiting the loss of water and nutrients and protecting against radiation and invasion of pathogens. The roles of cutin- and suberin polyesters are often attributed to their dominant aliphatic components, but the contribution of(More)
To investigate natural inhibitors against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) from plants, 10 known beta-carboline alkaloids and one quassinoid have been isolated from MeOH extract of the wood of Picrasma quassioides Benn. These compounds were screened for their inhibitory activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The activity of each compound against TMV(More)
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in the absence of antiretroviral suppressive therapy, drastically increases the risk of KS. Previously, we identified that HIV-1 transactivative transcription protein (Tat) was an important(More)
In contrast to numerous enzymes involved in c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation in enterobacteria, only a handful of c-di-GMP receptors/effectors have been identified. In search of new c-di-GMP receptors, we screened the Escherichia coli ASKA overexpression gene library using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA) with(More)
1H-nmr spectra of the natural products cucurbitacins A, B, C, D, E, F, I, L, 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin F, and hexanorcucurbitacin F, as well as three acetylated derivatives, were measured at 360 MHz in pyridine-d5. Chemical shifts and coupling constants were tabulated. In addition to all of the ring and side-chain protons, it was possible to assign several(More)
Characterization of the primary host factors associated with host-virus interaction is critical for understanding how a virus infects its host cell. In this study, a modified virus overlay protein binding assay was developed. Host factors with 34, 43, and 55 kDa proteins, which could interact with EDIII, a cell receptor-binding domain of Dengue virus(More)