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Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain. Little is known about the mechanism governing the sequential developmental process that leads to integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells into the existing circuitry. Here, we investigated roles of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a schizophrenia(More)
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a susceptibility gene for major mental illnesses, regulates multiple aspects of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Here, we show that DISC1 suppression in newborn neurons of the adult hippocampus leads to overactivated signaling of AKT, another schizophrenia susceptibility gene. Mechanistically, DISC1 directly interacts(More)
Miniaturization in electronics through improvements in established "top-down" fabrication techniques is approaching the point where fundamental issues are expected to limit the dramatic increases in computing seen over the past several decades. Here we report a "bottom-up" approach in which functional device elements and element arrays have been assembled(More)
One-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, represent the smallest dimension for efficient transport of electrons and excitons and thus are ideal building blocks for hierarchical assembly of functional nanoscale electronic and photonic structures. We report an approach for the hierarchical assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into(More)
We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein(More)
New neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles throughout life. The origin of these new neurons is believed to be from multipotent adult neural stem cells. Aided by new methodologies, significant progress has been made in the characterization of neural stem(More)
D-aspartic acid is abundant in the developing brain. We have identified and cloned mammalian aspartate racemase (DR), which converts L-aspartate to D-aspartate and colocalizes with D-aspartate in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues. Depletion of DR by retrovirus-mediated expression of short-hairpin RNA in newborn neurons of the adult hippocampus elicits(More)
New neurons are continuously generated in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain. Although these adult-born neurons have been shown to receive synaptic inputs, little is known about their synaptic outputs. Using retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling in combination with serial section electron microscopic reconstruction, we report that mossy(More)
In mammals, few retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive following axotomy, and even fewer regenerate axons. This could reflect differential extrinsic influences or the existence of subpopulations that vary in their responses to injury. We tested these alternatives by comparing responses of molecularly distinct subsets of mouse RGCs to axotomy. Survival rates(More)
Complex retinal circuits process visual information and deliver it to the brain. Few molecular determinants of synaptic specificity in this system are known. Using genetic and optogenetic methods, we identified two types of bipolar interneurons that convey visual input from photoreceptors to a circuit that computes the direction in which objects are moving.(More)