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Support for the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality has been refined and strengthened. Killing by diverse antimicrobials is enhanced by defects in genes that protect against ROS, inhibited by compounds that block hydroxyl radical accumulation, and is associated with surges in intracellular ROS. Moreover, support has(More)
The quinolones trap DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV on DNA as complexes in which the DNA is broken but constrained by protein. Early studies suggested that drug binding occurs largely along helix-4 of the GyrA (gyrase) and ParC (topoisomerase IV) proteins. However, recent X-ray crystallography shows drug intercalating between the -1 and +1 nucleotides(More)
The selection of antibiotic-resistant mutant bacteria is proposed to occur in a drug concentration range (the mutant selection window) that extends from the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of susceptible cells to the MIC of the least susceptible, single-step bacterial mutants (the mutant prevention concentration [MPC]). MPCs were estimated for(More)
Antimicrobial dosing is currently attracting attention as a way to minimize the emergence of resistance. Three dose-based strategies have been advocated, each with shortcomings. Focus on killing susceptible cells overlooks resistant mutant subpopulations that may be present before treatment or generated during therapy; keeping therapeutic drug(More)
BACKGROUND Despite their ease of use, lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) often suffer from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. We explored the use of a novel class of europium chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles as labels to overcome these limitations. METHODS Antibodies were covalently conjugated onto europium chelate-loaded(More)
The target volume of multiplex real-time PCR assays is limited by the number of fluorescent dyes available and the number of fluorescence acquisition channels present in the PCR instrument. We hereby explored a probe labeling strategy that significantly increased the target volume of real-time PCR detection in one reaction. The labeling paradigm, termed(More)
The effect of antimicrobial concentration on colony-forming ability of resistant mutant subpopulations of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus was measured for chloramphenicol, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, penicillin and tetracycline. The relationship between drug concentration and the recovery of mutant colonies was distinct for each(More)
BACKGROUND The continuing emergence of antimicrobial resistance requires the development of new compounds and/or enhancers of existing compounds. Genes that protect against the lethal effects of antibiotic stress are potential targets of enhancers. To distinguish such genes from those involved in drug uptake and efflux, a new susceptibility screen is(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Acquired antimicrobial resistance is commonly attributed to regimens that expose bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations; consequently, eradication of susceptible cells is advocated. The mutant selection window hypothesis predicts that resistance can be acquired even when inhibitory concentrations are exceeded and susceptible(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial type-2 (protein-protein) toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two-gene operons that are thought to participate in the response to stress. Previous work with Escherichia coli has led to a debate in which some investigators conclude that the modules protect from stress, while others argue that they amplify lethal stress and lead to programmed(More)