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The selection of antibiotic-resistant mutant bacteria is proposed to occur in a drug concentration range (the mutant selection window) that extends from the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of susceptible cells to the MIC of the least susceptible, single-step bacterial mutants (the mutant prevention concentration [MPC]). MPCs were estimated for(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Long-chain fatty acid receptors G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) (FFAR1) and GPR120 have been implicated in the chemosensation of dietary fats. I cells in the intestine secrete cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide hormone that stimulates digestion of fat and protein, but these cells are rare and hard to identify. We sought to determine(More)
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has recently been recognized as an L-amino acid sensor and has been implicated in mediating cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion in response to aromatic amino acids. We investigated whether direct detection of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) by CaSR results in CCK secretion in the native I cell. Fluorescence-activated(More)
The mutant selection window hypothesis postulates that, for each antimicrobial-pathogen combination, an antimicrobial concentration range exists in which selective amplification of single-step, drug-resistant mutants occurs. This hypothesis suggests an antimutant dosing strategy that is keyed to the upper boundary of the selection window: the mutant(More)
A functional calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor requires dimerization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP 1). To determine the function of the three domains (extracellular, ECD; transmembrane, TM; and tail domains) of human RAMP 1, three mutants were constructed: RAMP 1 without the(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial type-2 (protein-protein) toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two-gene operons that are thought to participate in the response to stress. Previous work with Escherichia coli has led to a debate in which some investigators conclude that the modules protect from stress, while others argue that they amplify lethal stress and lead to programmed(More)
BACKGROUND Quinolone-mediated death of Escherichia coli has been proposed to occur by two pathways. One is blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis; the other is not. It is currently unknown how these two pathways fit with the recent observation that hydroxyl radical accumulation is associated with quinolone lethality. METHODS E. coli was treated with(More)
The quinolones trap DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV on DNA as complexes in which the DNA is broken but constrained by protein. Early studies suggested that drug binding occurs largely along helix-4 of the GyrA (gyrase) and ParC (topoisomerase IV) proteins. However, recent X-ray crystallography shows drug intercalating between the -1 and +1 nucleotides(More)
DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the(More)