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Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for integration of endogenous and exogenous signals to adapt to the changing environment. Both the phytohormones jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) regulate plant growth, development, and defense. In addition to synergistic regulation of root hair development and resistance to necrotrophic fungi, JA and ET act(More)
CYP51 encodes the cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase, an enzyme essential for sterol biosynthesis and the target of azole fungicides. In Fusarium species, including pathogens of humans and plants, three CYP51 paralogues have been identified with one unique to the genus. Currently, the functions of these three genes and the rationale for their(More)
Cell fate decisions are critical for life, yet little is known about how their reliability is achieved when signals are noisy and fluctuating with time. In this study, we show that in budding yeast, the decision of cell cycle commitment (Start) is determined by the time integration of its triggering signal Cln3. We further identify the Start repressor,(More)
Phytophthora capsici causes significant loss to pepper (Capsicum annum) in China and our goal was to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. capsici and characterize genetic diversity nationwide. Eighteen isolates of P. capsici from locations worldwide were re-sequenced and candidate nuclear and mitochondrial SNPs identified. From 2006(More)
In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140 μg/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100(More)
Design and synthesis of basic functional circuits are the fundamental tasks of synthetic biologists. Before it is possible to engineer higher-order genetic networks that can perform complex functions, a toolkit of basic devices must be developed. Among those devices, sequential logic circuits are expected to be the foundation of the genetic(More)
Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the baseline sensitivity of Phytophthora capsici and its risk for developing resistance to zoxamide. In total, 158 P. capsici isolates were collected from China. All 158 isolates were sensitive to zoxamide, with effective concentrations for 50% inhibition of mycelial growth of 0.023 to 0.383 μg/ml and a(More)
We propose what we believe is a new model to quantitatively describe the lambda-phage SWITCH system. The model incorporates facilitated transfer mechanism of transcription factor, which can be simplified into a two-step reaction. We first sequentially obtain two indispensable parameters by fitting our model to experimental data of two simple systems, and(More)
This study characterized isolates of P. capsici that had developed a novel mechanism of resistance to zoxamide, which altered the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) but not the EC50. Molecular analysis revealed that the β-tubulin gene of the resistant isolates contained no mutations and was expressed at the same level as in zoxamide-sensitive isolates.(More)
BACKGROUND The oomycete fungicide flumorph is a recently introduced carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicide. In order to evaluate the risk of developing field resistance to flumorph, the authors compared it with dimethomorph and azoxystrobin with respect to the ease of obtaining resistant isolates to these fungicides, the level of resistance and their fitness(More)