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Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane associated protein and a potent causative factor of ER stress. Here we reported that unfolded protein response (UPR) can be activated by HCV NS4B through inducing both XBP1 mRNA splicing and ATF6 cleavage in human hepatic cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that(More)
Some strains of the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are adapted for growth and survival on leaf surfaces and in the leaf interior. Global transcriptome profiling was used to evaluate if these two habitats offer distinct environments for bacteria and thus present distinct driving forces for adaptation. The transcript profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv.(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular membrane organelle that plays important roles in virus replication and maturation. Accumulating evidence indicates that virus infection often disturbs ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress, which is associated with a variety of prevalent diseases. To cope with the deleterious effects of virus-induced ER stress,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen infecting more than 170 million people worldwide with approximately three million new cases each year. HCV depends heavily on interactions between viral proteins and host factors for its survival and propagation. Among HCV viral proteins, the HCV non-structural protein 4B (NS4B) has been shown to(More)
The Rob protein, isolated on the basis of its ability to bind to the right arm of the Escherichia coli origin of chromosomal replication, is about 50% identical in amino acid sequence to SoxS and MarA, the direct regulators of the superoxide (soxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulons, respectively. Having previously demonstrated that SoxS (as(More)
The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is a useful model for understanding the role of stress adaptation in leaf colonization. We investigated the mechanistic basis of differences in the osmotolerance of two P. syringae strains, B728a and DC3000. Consistent with its higher survival rates following inoculation onto leaves, B728a exhibited superior(More)
Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve(More)
Cancer cells prefer aerobic glycolysis, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Recent studies showed that the rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) directly phosphorylates H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) to regulate gene expression and cell proliferation, revealing its non-metabolic functions in connecting glycolysis and(More)
Many bacteria can accumulate glycine betaine for osmoprotection and catabolize it as a growth substrate, but how they regulate these opposing roles is poorly understood. In Pseudomonas syringae B728a, expression of the betaine catabolism genes was reduced by an osmotic upshift to an intermediate stress level, consistent with betaine accumulation, but was(More)
The expression of core histone genes is cell cycle regulated. Large amounts of histones are required to restore duplicated chromatin during S phase when DNA replication occurs. Over-expression and excess accumulation of histones outside S phase are toxic to cells and therefore cells need to restrict histone expression to S phase. Misregulation of histone(More)