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A new class of inflammatory CD4(+) T cells that produce interleukin-17 (IL-17) (termed Th17) has been identified, which plays a critical role in numerous inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], has a direct repressive effect on the expression of IL-17A in both human and(More)
Protein ubiquitination plays a critical role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and innate immunity. Although several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been identified downstream of TLRs, the regulation of protein deubiquitination in TLR-triggered innate immune responses is poorly understood. We identified ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (USP25) as a regulator of(More)
The biological activities of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 have been widely studied. However, comparatively little is known about how IL-17 expression is controlled. Here, we examined the basis for transcriptional regulation of the human IL-17 gene. IL-17 secretion was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following anti-CD3(More)
B7 family members regulate T cell activation and tolerance. Although butyrophilin proteins share sequence homology with the B7 molecules, it is unclear whether they have any function in immune responses. In the present study, we characterize an MHC class II gene-linked butyrophilin family member, butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2), the mutation of which has been(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a recently described cytokine involved in the amplification of inflammatory responses and pathologies. A hallmark feature of IL-17 is its ability to induce expression of other cytokines and chemokines. In addition, IL-17 potently synergizes with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) to up-regulate expression of many target genes,(More)
The lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is activated to reactive metabolites that methylate or pyridyloxobutylate DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that pyridyloxobutylated DNA interferes with the repair of O6-methylguanine (O6-mG) by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). The AGT reactivity of pyridyloxobutylated DNA(More)
SUMMARY In addition to signals from the T-cell receptor complex, it has been recognized for many years that a 'second' signal, most notably from CD28, is also important in T-cell activation. In the recent years, many new members of CD28 family as well as the molecules that share structural homology to CD28 ligands CD80 and CD86 have been discovered.(More)
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is important in infection and autoimmunity; how it signals remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified the ubiquitin-specific protease USP25 as a negative regulator of IL-17-mediated signaling and inflammation. Overexpression of USP25 inhibited IL-17-triggered signaling, whereas USP25 deficiency resulted in more(More)
Reversible ubiquitin modification of cell signaling molecules has emerged as a critical mechanism by which cells respond to extracellular stimuli. Although ubiquitination of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for NF-κB activation in T cells, the regulation of its deubiquitination is unclear. We show that USP18, which was previously reported to be(More)
How naive CD4(+) T cells commit to the T helper type 2 (T(H)2) lineage is poorly understood. Here we show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 was selectively expressed in T(H)2 cells. CD4(+) T cells from Dec2-deficient mice showed defective T(H)2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo in an asthma model and in response to challenge with(More)