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Experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is marked by impaired nerve conduction velocity (NCV), reduced nerve blood flow (NBF), and a variety of metabolic abnormalities in peripheral nerve that have been variously ascribed to hyperglycemia, abnormal fatty acid metabolism, ischemic hypoxia, and/or oxidative stress. Some investigators propose that(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists reduce lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues, attenuating atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in preclinical studies. We examined whether GLP-1R activation decreases atherosclerosis progression in high-fat diet-fed male ApoE(-/-) mice after administration of streptozotocin and treatment with the(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates energy intake, gastrointestinal motility, and nutrient disposal. The relative importance of the islet beta-cell for GLP-1 actions remains unclear. We determined the role of the islet beta-cell and the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) transcription factor for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-dependent actions through(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L cells promotes nutrient disposal via the incretin effect. However, the majority of L cells are localized to the distal gut, suggesting additional biological roles for GLP-1. Here, we demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling controls mucosal expansion of the small bowel (SB) and colon.(More)
Heterogeneous myocardial sympathetic denervation complicating diabetes has been invoked as a factor contributing to sudden unexplained cardiac death. In subjects with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN), distal left ventricular (LV) denervation contrasts with preservation of islands of proximal innervation, which exhibit impaired vascular responsiveness.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates glucose homeostasis through multiple mechanisms including direct actions on the endocrine pancreas and indirect activation of central nervous system circuits regulating gastric emptying, satiety, and body weight. Because native GLP-1 is rapidly degraded, there is considerable interest in(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls glucose homeostasis by regulating secretion of insulin and glucagon through a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1R agonists also increase pancreatic weight in some preclinical studies through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the increase in pancreatic weight following activation of GLP-1R(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion is classically regulated by ingested nutrients. To identify novel molecular targets controlling incretin secretion, we analyzed enteroendocrine cell pathways important for hormone biosynthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that progesterone increases GLP-1 secretion and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2(More)
GLP-1R agonists improve outcomes in ischemic heart disease. Here we studied GLP-1R-dependent adaptive and cardioprotective responses to ventricular injury. Glp1r (-/-) hearts exhibited chamber-specific differences in gene expression, but normal mortality and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) or experimental(More)
Despite interest in understanding glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production, the factors important for GLP-1 biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We examined control of human proglucagon gene expression in NCI-H716 cells, a cell line that secretes GLP-1 in a regulated manner. Insulin, phorbol myristate acetate, or forskolin, known regulators of rodent(More)