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Experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is marked by impaired nerve conduction velocity (NCV), reduced nerve blood flow (NBF), and a variety of metabolic abnormalities in peripheral nerve that have been variously ascribed to hyperglycemia, abnormal fatty acid metabolism, ischemic hypoxia, and/or oxidative stress. Some investigators propose that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates glucose homeostasis through multiple mechanisms including direct actions on the endocrine pancreas and indirect activation of central nervous system circuits regulating gastric emptying, satiety, and body weight. Because native GLP-1 is rapidly degraded, there is considerable interest in(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates energy intake, gastrointestinal motility, and nutrient disposal. The relative importance of the islet beta-cell for GLP-1 actions remains unclear. We determined the role of the islet beta-cell and the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) transcription factor for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-dependent actions through(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists reduce lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues, attenuating atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in preclinical studies. We examined whether GLP-1R activation decreases atherosclerosis progression in high-fat diet-fed male ApoE(-/-) mice after administration of streptozotocin and treatment with the(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L cells promotes nutrient disposal via the incretin effect. However, the majority of L cells are localized to the distal gut, suggesting additional biological roles for GLP-1. Here, we demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling controls mucosal expansion of the small bowel (SB) and colon.(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Metformin is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although it reduces hepatic glucose production, clinical studies show that metformin may reduce plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity and increase circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We examined whether metformin exerts glucoregulatory actions via modulation(More)
GLP-1R agonists improve outcomes in ischemic heart disease. Here we studied GLP-1R-dependent adaptive and cardioprotective responses to ventricular injury. Glp1r (-/-) hearts exhibited chamber-specific differences in gene expression, but normal mortality and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) or experimental(More)
In diabetes, increased oxidative stress, disruption of signal transduction pathways, and endothelial dysfunction have been critically implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic neuropathy (EDN). The development of nerve conduction slowing in diabetes is accompanied by depletion of the beta-amino acid taurine. Since taurine functions as an(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls glucose homeostasis by regulating secretion of insulin and glucagon through a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1R agonists also increase pancreatic weight in some preclinical studies through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the increase in pancreatic weight following activation of GLP-1R(More)
The study was aimed at evaluating changes in lens antioxidant status, glucose utilization, redox state of free cytosolic NAD(P)-couples and adenine nucleotides in rats with 6-week streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and to assess a possibility of preventing them by DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Rats were divided into control and diabetic groups treated with and(More)