Xichen Zhang

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Recent studies in the United States reported that approximately 85% of pre-weaned dairy calves were infected with zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum, whereas only 1-2% of post-weaned calves and 1-2-year-old heifers were infected with this species. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype were much more prevalent in the post-weaned animals.(More)
To assess the genetic diversity and evolution of Cryptosporidium parasites, the partial ssrRNA, actin, and 70kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) genes of 15 new Cryptosporidium parasites were sequenced. Sequence data were analysed together with those previously obtained from other Cryptosporidium parasites (10 Cryptosporidium spp. and eight Cryptosporidium(More)
The lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani, is of major socioeconomic importance in Asia. The parasite is transmitted via snails to freshwater crabs or crayfish, then to humans and other mammals, such as cats and dogs, and causes paragonimiasis. This review provides a background on the parasite and its life cycle; summarizes key aspects regarding the(More)
Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the Chinese herb Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. It has been reported that emodin possesses a number of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, and immunosuppressive properties. However, the effect of emodin on mastitis is not yet known. The aim of this study was to(More)
The endometrium is easily contaminated with bacteria and the endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) play an important role in defence against invading pathogens which recognized pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria(More)
Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 42 (17.9%), 6 (2.6%), and 29 (12.3%) of 235 newly captured baboons in Kenya, respectively. Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and(More)
A novel strategy was developed to prepare nanospheres and vesicles as drug carriers. The drug-loaded pectin nanospheres and vesicles were fabricated in aqueous media containing Ca2+ and CO3(2-) ions under very mild conditions, which did not involve any surfactant. Through adjusting the preparation conditions, nanosized drug delivery systems with diverse(More)
Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryotic microorganism that derives its metabolic energy primarily from anaerobic glycolysis. In most organisms, glycolysis is catalyzed by pyruvate kinase (PK), allowing the generation of two ATP molecules from one molecule of pyruvate. Giardia has both PK and pyrophosphate-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase(More)
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects many domestic and wild animals. Dog is known as a definitive host of N. caninum and involved in transmitting infections to intermediate hosts by shedding oocysts. To investigate the epidemiology of dog neosporosis in China, 212 dog feces specimens in Shenyang were screened by nested-PCR using Nc5(More)
Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi(More)