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The use of opioid analgesics has a long history in clinical settings, although the comprehensive action of opioid receptors is still less understood. Nonetheless, recent studies have generated fresh insights into opioid receptor-mediated functions and their underlying mechanisms. Three major opioid receptors (μ-opioid receptor, MOR; δ-opioid receptor, DOR;(More)
We report on the experimental results for heat-transport measurements, in the form of the Nusselt number Nu, by turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC) in a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio 0 ≡ D/L = 0.50 (D = 1.12m is the diameter and L = 2.24m the height). The measurements were made using sulfur hexafluoride at pressures up to 19 bar as the fluid.(More)
The time-averaged local thermal dissipation rate epsilonN(r) in turbulent convection is obtained from direct measurements of the temperature gradient vector in a cylindrical cell filled with water. It is found that epsilonN(r) contains two contributions. One is generated by thermal plumes, present mainly in the plume-dominated bulk region, and decreases(More)
Measurements of the Nusselt number Nu and of a Reynolds number Re(eff) for Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) over the Rayleigh-number range 10(12)≲Ra≲10(15) and for Prandtl numbers Pr near 0.8 are presented. The aspect ratio Γ≡D/L of a cylindrical sample was 0.50. For Ra≲10(13) the data yielded Nu∝Ra(γ(eff)) with γ(eff)≃0.31 and Re(eff)∝Ra(ζ(eff)) with(More)
PURPOSE Hydrogen has antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of hydrogen on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley® rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were then randomized to a diabetes mellitus(More)
BACKGROUND Vaccination against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been applied successfully for more than 20 years in China, and since 2008, the government has implemented the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in regions with high incidence. In this study, we analyzed the EPI-related changes in age distribution in reported cases of HFRS(More)
We report an experimental study of the temperature space-time cross-correlation function, C{T}(r,τ), in the central region of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The measured C{T}(r,τ) is found to have the scaling form C{T}(r{E},0), where r{E}=[r² +(Vτ)²]¹/² with V being the rms velocity at the center of the convection cell. The experiment confirms the(More)
The space-time cross-correlation function C(T)(r,τ) of local temperature fluctuations in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection is obtained from simultaneous two-point time series measurements. The obtained C(T)(r,τ) is found to have the scaling form C(T)(r(E),0) with r(E)=[(r-Uτ)(2)+V(2)τ(2)](1/2), where U and V are two characteristic velocities associated(More)
A systematic study of the thermal dissipation field and its statistical properties is carried out in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A local temperature gradient probe consisting of four identical thermistors is made to measure the normalized thermal dissipation rate epsilonN(r) in two convection cells filled with water. The measurements are conducted(More)
BACKGROUND Intratumoral hemorrhage is a frequent occurrence in renal cell carcinoma and is an indicator of tumor subtype. We hypothesize that susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is sensitive to hemorrhage in renal cell carcinoma and can give a more diagnostic image when compared to conventional imaging techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective(More)