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Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which regulates proliferation in many contexts, functions as a limb morphogen to specify a distinct pattern of digits. How Shh's effects on cell number relate to its role in specifying digit identity is unclear. Deleting the mouse Shh gene at different times using a conditional Cre line, we find that Shh functions to control limb(More)
A common aspect of gene regulation in all developmental systems is the sustained repression of key regulatory genes in inappropriate spatial or temporal domains. To understand the mechanism of transcriptional repression of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG), we identified two mutations in the BELLRINGER (BLR) gene based on a striking floral phenotype, in(More)
The polarization of nascent embryonic fields and the endowment of cells with organizer properties are key to initiation of vertebrate organogenesis. One such event is antero-posterior (AP) polarization of early limb buds and activation of morphogenetic Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the posterior mesenchyme, which in turn promotes outgrowth and specifies(More)
Anterior-posterior (AP) limb patterning is directed by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling from the posteriorly located zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). GLI3 and GLI2 are the transcriptional mediators generally utilized in SHH signaling, and each can function as an activator (A) and repressor (R). Although GLI3R has been suggested to be the primary effector of(More)
The ability to generate conditional mutant alleles in mice using Cre-lox technology has facilitated analysis of genes playing critical roles in multiple developmental processes at different times. We used a transgenic Hoxb6 promoter to drive tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase expression in several developing systems that serve as major models for(More)
Polydactyly is a common malformation and can be an isolated anomaly or part of a pleiotropic syndrome. The elucidation of the mutated genes that cause polydactyly provides insight into limb development pathways. The extra-toes spotting (Xs) mouse phenotype manifests anterior polydactyly, predominantly in the forelimbs, with ventral hypopigmenation. The(More)
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