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BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), including some phthalates, phytoestrogens and phenols can be quantified using biomarkers of exposure. However, reliability in the use of these biomarkers requires an understanding of the timeframe of exposure represented by one measurement. Data on the temporal variability of ED biomarkers are sparse,(More)
BACKGROUND Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. OBJECTIVE We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. METHODS We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may be associated with developmental toxicity, but few studies have examined the variability and predictors of urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to estimate the variability and predictors of serial urinary BPA concentrations taken during pregnancy. METHODS We measured BPA(More)
Urinary concentrations of phenols or their metabolites have been used as biomarkers to assess the prevalence of exposure to these compounds in the general population. Total urinary concentrations, which include both free and conjugated (glucuronide and sulfated) forms of the compounds, are usually reported. From a toxicologic standpoint, the relative(More)
OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that exposure to polyvinyl chloride plastic medical devices containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with higher urinary concentrations of several DEHP metabolites in 54 premature infants in two neonatal intensive care units than in the general population. For 42 of these infants, we evaluated urinary(More)
Breast milk is one possible route of exposure to environmental chemicals, including phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals for breast-fed infants. We developed a highly sensitive method of analyzing breast milk for triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) and eight phenolic compounds: bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tOP), ortho-phenylphenol(More)
BACKGROUND Triclosan is a synthetic chemical with broad antimicrobial activity that has been used extensively in consumer products, including personal care products, textiles, and plastic kitchenware. OBJECTIVES This study was designed to assess exposure to triclosan in a representative sample > or = 6 years of age of the U.S. general population from the(More)
BACKGROUND Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to phthalates and phenols on fetal growth are limited in humans. Previous findings suggest possible effects of some phenols on male birth weight. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to assess the relationships between prenatal exposures to phthalates and phenols and fetal growth among male newborns. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. OBJECTIVES(More)