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MD5 is one of the most widely used cryptographic hash functions nowadays. It was designed in 1992 as an improvement of MD4, and its security was widely studied since then by several authors. The best known result so far was a semi free-start collision, in which the initial value of the hash function is replaced by a non-standard value, which is the result(More)
1 Collisions for MD5 MD5 is the hash function designed by Ron Rivest [9] as a strengthened version of MD4[8]. In 1993 Bert den Boer and Antoon Bosselaers [1] found pseudo-collision for MD5 which is made of the same message with two different sets of initial value. H. Dobbertin[3] found another kind of collision which consists of two different 512-bit(More)
MD4 is a hash function developed by Rivest in 1990. It serves as the basis for most of the dedicated hash functions such as MD5, SHAx, RIPEMD, and HAVAL. In 1996, Dobbertin showed how to find collisions of MD4 with complexity equivalent to 2 20 MD4 hash computations. In this paper, we present a new attack on MD4 which can find a collision with probability 2(More)
BACKGROUND Next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are currently being utilized for targeted sequencing of candidate genes or genomic intervals to perform sequence-based association studies. To evaluate these platforms for this application, we analyzed human sequence generated by the Roche 454, Illumina GA, and the ABI SOLiD technologies for the same 260(More)
Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, located on the chromosome 6V short arm of Haynaldia villosa and transferred to wheat as a 6VS·6AL translocation (T6VS·6AL), confers durable and broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21 has become a key gene resource for powdery mildew resistance breeding all over the world. In China, 12 wheat varieties(More)
Chromosomal organization is sufficiently evolutionarily stable that large syntenic blocks of genes can be recognized even between species as distantly related as mammals and puffer fish (450 million years (Myr) of divergence). In Diptera, the gene content of the X chromosome and the autosomes is well conserved: in Drosophila more than 95% of the genes have(More)
Announcement We announce a method for the construction of pairs of valid X.509 certificates in which the " to be signed " parts form a collision for the MD5 hash function. As a result the issuer signatures in the certificates will be the same when the issuer uses MD5 as its hash function. With this construction we show that MD5 collisions can be crafted(More)
BACKGROUND Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of(More)
Endoscopic resection of colonic submucosal tumors (SMTs) is challenging and carries a high risk of perforation. In this prospective pilot study we aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of endoscopic full-thickness resection of colonic SMTs. The study enrolled 19 consecutive patients with colonic SMTs 3 cm in size or smaller. In 18 of the(More)