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Evidence suggests that the New World was colonized only 11,000-40,000 years ago by Palaeo-Indians. The descendants of these Palaeo-Indians therefore provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of selection on major histocompatibility complex class I genes over a short period. Here we analyse the class I alleles of the Waorani of South America and the(More)
There are nearly 50 alleles at the highly polymorphic HLA-A class I locus that fall into six distinct families. To determine the allelic repertoire and the mechanism of generation of diversity of the A locus in primates we have analyzed A locus alleles from 28 apparently unrelated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). We have, therefore,(More)
This work reports on the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to maize (Zea mays L.) and their transport and redistribution in the plant. CuO NPs (100 mg L(-1)) had no effect on germination, but inhibited the growth of maize seedlings; in comparison the dissolved Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no obvious effect on maize growth. CuO NPs were present(More)
Signalling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalysed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade, which links the carboxy terminus of ubiquitin to the ε-amino group of, in most cases, a lysine of the substrate via an isopeptide bond. Given the essential roles of(More)
Bacterial type III protein secretion systems deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells in order to modulate cellular processes. Central to the function of these protein-delivery machines is their ability to recognize and secrete substrates in a defined order. Here, we describe a mechanism by which a type III secretion system from the bacterial(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci are some of the most polymorphic genes in the animal kingdom. Recently, it has been suggested that although most of the human MHC loci are relatively stable, the HLA-B locus can undergo rapid changes, especially in isolated populations. To investigate the mechanisms of HLA-B evolution we have compared the(More)
Adverse effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on the aquatic environment and organisms has recently drawn much attention. This paper reports on the toxicity of CuO NPs to juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their distribution in the fish. CuO NPs and its counterpart bulk particles (BPs) (10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 mg L(-1)) exhibited no acute(More)
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila modulates the activity of host GTPases to direct the transport and assembly of the membrane-bound compartment in which it resides. In vitro studies have indicated that the Legionella protein DrrA post-translationally modifies the GTPase Rab1 by a process called AMPylation. Here we used mass spectrometry to(More)
BACKGROUND A growing number of developing countries are developing health insurance schemes that aim to protect households, particularly the poor, from financial catastrophe and impoverishment caused by unaffordable medical care. This paper investigates the extent to which patients suffering from chronic disease in rural China face catastrophic expenditure(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift.(More)