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Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Heading date1 (Hd1), Early hd1 (Ehd1), Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here(More)
Bacterial type III protein secretion systems deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells in order to modulate cellular processes. Central to the function of these protein-delivery machines is their ability to recognize and secrete substrates in a defined order. Here, we describe a mechanism by which a type III secretion system from the bacterial(More)
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila modulates the activity of host GTPases to direct the transport and assembly of the membrane-bound compartment in which it resides. In vitro studies have indicated that the Legionella protein DrrA post-translationally modifies the GTPase Rab1 by a process called AMPylation. Here we used mass spectrometry to(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift.(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization(More)
BACKGROUND A growing number of developing countries are developing health insurance schemes that aim to protect households, particularly the poor, from financial catastrophe and impoverishment caused by unaffordable medical care. This paper investigates the extent to which patients suffering from chronic disease in rural China face catastrophic expenditure(More)
The advent of on-line multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has significantly impacted proteomic analyses of complex biological fluids such as plasma. However, there is general agreement that additional advances to enhance the peak capacity of such platforms are required to enhance the accuracy and coverage of proteome maps of such(More)
The selective in vitro expansion and differentiation of multipotent stem cells are critical steps in cell-based regenerative therapies, but technical challenges have limited cell yield and thus the success of these potential treatments. The Rho GTPases and downstream Rho kinases (Rho coiled-coil kinases or ROCKs) are central regulators of cytoskeletal(More)
Differential, functional, and mapping proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures suffer from a lack of component resolution. Here we describe the application of ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to this problem. With this approach, components that are separated by liquid chromatography are dispersed based on differences in their mobilities(More)
In this paper, we define the fitting energy by a new kernel function, which is to do in the range of an image what traditional filters do a small neighborhood of the same location. We combine the advantages of the LBF model and our model by taking domain and range kernel functions into account. The new level set method with domain and range kernel functions(More)