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This work reports on the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to maize (Zea mays L.) and their transport and redistribution in the plant. CuO NPs (100 mg L(-1)) had no effect on germination, but inhibited the growth of maize seedlings; in comparison the dissolved Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no obvious effect on maize growth. CuO NPs were present(More)
Bacterial type III protein secretion systems deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells in order to modulate cellular processes. Central to the function of these protein-delivery machines is their ability to recognize and secrete substrates in a defined order. Here, we describe a mechanism by which a type III secretion system from the bacterial(More)
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila modulates the activity of host GTPases to direct the transport and assembly of the membrane-bound compartment in which it resides. In vitro studies have indicated that the Legionella protein DrrA post-translationally modifies the GTPase Rab1 by a process called AMPylation. Here we used mass spectrometry to(More)
BACKGROUND A growing number of developing countries are developing health insurance schemes that aim to protect households, particularly the poor, from financial catastrophe and impoverishment caused by unaffordable medical care. This paper investigates the extent to which patients suffering from chronic disease in rural China face catastrophic expenditure(More)
Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study(More)
INTRODUCTION China has an estimated 5 million people with tuberculosis (TB). Official policy is that treatment of all patients is directly observed by health workers; completion rates are reported to be in excess of 90%, and drugs should be supplied for free. However, some research suggests there is a gap between the official policies and practice. (More)
Signalling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalysed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade, which links the carboxy terminus of ubiquitin to the ε-amino group of, in most cases, a lysine of the substrate via an isopeptide bond. Given the essential roles of(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to explore perceptions of TB, and health care seeking pathways, among poor rural communities in Inner Mongolia. METHODOLOGY Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) were held and 105 farmers were included. Six hundred and fourteen randomly selected respondents were surveyed through interview questionnaire, in three poor rural(More)
A major obstacle to the provision of health services is lack of an effective workforce. Human resource management (HRM) can improve the effectiveness of the workforce, though this is difficult in large bureaucratic organisations. Decentralisation is a common reform strategy and this paper sets out to examine whether HRM would be improved in decentralised(More)
Evidence suggests that the New World was colonized only 11,000-40,000 years ago by Palaeo-Indians. The descendants of these Palaeo-Indians therefore provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of selection on major histocompatibility complex class I genes over a short period. Here we analyse the class I alleles of the Waorani of South America and the(More)