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A new liquid ammonia pretreatment methodology called Extractive Ammonia (EA) was developed to simultaneously convert native crystalline cellulose I b (CI) to a highly digestible cellulose III I (CIII) allomorph and selectively extract up to B45% of the lignin from lignocellulosic biomass with near-quantitative retention of all poly-saccharides. EA(More)
This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one(More)
Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven)(More)
Utilizing the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined how visual spatial or temporal cues modulated the auditory stimulus processing. The visual spatial cue (VSC) induces orienting of attention to spatial locations; the visual temporal cue (VTC) induces orienting of attention to temporal intervals. Participants were(More)
PURPOSE The mechanism underlying forced limb-use -induced structural plasticity remains to be studied. We examined whether the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signal transduction pathway was involved in brain plasticity and promoted behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use after stroke. METHODS Adult rats were divided into a sham(More)
A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a(More)
(2014) A multidimensional collaborative filtering fusion approach with dimension-ality reduction. Eds. Reproduction for academic, not-for profit purposes permitted provided this text is included Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing and formatting may not be reflected in this document. For a definitive version(More)
BACKGROUND The fermentation inhibition of yeast or bacteria by lignocellulose-derived degradation products, during hexose/pentose co-fermentation, is a major bottleneck for cost-effective lignocellulosic biorefineries. To engineer microbial strains for improved performance, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of inhibition that affect fermentative(More)