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Recent genome sequencing efforts have led to the rapid accumulation of uncharacterized or "orphaned" secondary metabolic biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) in public databases. This increase in DNA-sequenced big data has given rise to significant challenges in the applied field of natural product genome mining, including (i) how to prioritize the(More)
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by combining a PDMS membrane bioreactor and Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied, and a long continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system has been achieved. Two cycles of experiment were conducted, lasting for 274 h and 300 h, respectively. The operation mode of the first cycle was of fermentation(More)
The kinetics of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pervaporation membrane bioreactor. Three sequential 500-h cycles of CCCF experiments were carried out. A glucose volumetric consumption of 3.8 g L(-1) h(-1) and ethanol volumetric(More)
Few studies emphasize the collagen metabolism-related cytokines and ultrastructure of the completely stress-shielded Achilles tendon. In this study, we used a rat model with complete stress shielding of the Achilles tendon to observe the changes in the ultrastructure of the Achilles tendon and concentration of IL-1 and TGF-β 3 weeks after stress shielding.(More)
A new liquid ammonia pretreatment methodology called Extractive Ammonia (EA) was developed to simultaneously convert native crystalline cellulose I b (CI) to a highly digestible cellulose III I (CIII) allomorph and selectively extract up to B45% of the lignin from lignocellulosic biomass with near-quantitative retention of all poly-saccharides. EA(More)
Napsamycins are potent inhibitors of bacterial translocase I, an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and are classified as uridylpeptide antibiotics. They comprise an N-methyl diaminobutyric acid, an ureido group, a methionine and two non-proteinogenic aromatic amino acid residues in a peptide backbone that is linked to a(More)
Caprazamycins (CPZs) belong to a group of liponucleoside antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial MraY translocase, an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have recently identified analogs that are decorated with a sulfate group at the 2″-hydroxy of the aminoribosyl moiety, and we now report an unprecedented two-step sulfation mechanism(More)
NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS(More)
Disulfide-thiol interchange proteins with hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activities (designated NOX for plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidases) occur as extrinsic membrane proteins associated with the plasma membrane at the outer cell surface. The cancer-associated NOX protein, designated tNOX, has been cloned. The 34-kDa plasma membrane-associated form of(More)