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Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is an important mediator of immunity and inflammation that utilizes the JAK-STAT signaling pathway to activate the STAT1 transcription factor. Many functions of IFN-gamma have been ascribed to direct STAT1-mediated induction of immune effector genes, but recently it has become clear that key IFN-gamma functions are mediated by(More)
A variety of cytokines and growth factors use the Janus kinase (Jak)-STAT signaling pathway to transmit extracellular signals to the nucleus. STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors. There are seven mammalian STATs and they have critical, nonredundant roles in mediating cellular transcriptional(More)
Emerging concepts suggest that macrophage functional phenotype is regulated by transcription factors that define alternative activation states. We found that RBP-J, the major nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, augmented TLR4-induced expression of key mediators of classically activated M1 macrophages and thus innate immune responses to L. monocytogenes.(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone resorption and associated morbidity in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Mechanisms that regulate the direct osteoclastogenic properties of TNF to limit pathological bone resorption in inflammatory settings are mostly unknown. Here, we show that the(More)
Macrophage phenotype and activation are regulated by cytokines that use the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, microbial recognition receptors that include TLRs, and immunoreceptors that signal via ITAM motifs. The amplitude and qualitative nature of macrophage activation are determined by crosstalk among these signaling pathways. Basal ITAM signaling restrains(More)
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) primes macrophages for enhanced microbial killing and inflammatory activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during this priming. We found that IFN-γ regulated the metabolism and mRNA translation of human macrophages by targeting the kinases mTORC1 and MNK,(More)
The Notch signaling pathway is conserved from Drosophila to mammals and is critically involved in developmental processes. In the immune system, it has been established that Notch signaling regulates multiple steps of T and B cell development in both central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Relative to the well documented role of Notch signaling in(More)
Development of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage phenotypes is a complex process that is coordinately regulated by a plethora of pathways and factors. Here, we report that RBP-J, a DNA-binding protein that integrates signals from multiple pathways including the Notch pathway, is critically involved in polarization of M2 macrophages. Mice deficient in(More)
Formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network requires homotypic membrane fusion, which involves a class of atlastin (ATL) GTPases. Purified Drosophila ATL is capable of mediating vesicle fusion in vitro, but such activity has not been reported for any other ATLs. Here, we determined the preliminary crystal structure of the cytosolic segment of(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient contributing to a strong immune system for the prevention of infections and diseases in humans and animals. Dietary Se regulates the immune status and mediates anti-inflammatory action. Mastitis is an inflammation in the mammary gland typically induced through the major pathogen S. aureus. The aim of the present(More)