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The stability of the Wnt pathway transcription factor beta-catenin is tightly regulated by the multi-subunit destruction complex. Deregulated Wnt pathway activity has been implicated in many cancers, making this pathway an attractive target for anticancer therapies. However, the development of targeted Wnt pathway inhibitors has been hampered by the limited(More)
Metazoans are likely to have their roots in the Cryogenian period, but there is a marked increase in the appearance of novel animal and algae fossils shortly after the termination of the late Cryogenian (Marinoan) glaciation about 635 million years ago. It has been suggested that an oxygenation event in the wake of the severe Marinoan glaciation was the(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway plays essential roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis, and deregulation of this pathway has been linked to cancer. Axin is a concentration-limiting component of the β-catenin destruction complex, and its stability is regulated by tankyrase. However, the molecular mechanism by which(More)
Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigated percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth.(More)
Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called " big data " analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today's data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathbway controls many important biological processes. R-Spondin (RSPO) proteins are a family of secreted molecules that strongly potentiate Wnt/β-catenin signaling, however, the molecular mechanism of RSPO action is not yet fully understood. We performed an unbiased siRNA screen to identify molecules specifically required for(More)
The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation growth is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This is an extraordinary challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively detect and attribute a greening trend in China over the last three decades. We use three(More)
The image analogy framework is especially useful to synthesize appealing images for non-homogeneous input and gives users creative control over the synthesized results. However, the traditional framework did not adaptively employ the searching strategy based on neighborhood’s different textural contents. Besides, the synthesis speed is slow due to intensive(More)
Satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a proxy of vegetation productivity, is known to be correlated with temperature in northern ecosystems. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Here we show that above 30°N, the strength of the relationship between the interannual(More)