Learn More
Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different(More)
Electrostatic interaction is known to play important roles in the adsorption of charged lipids on oppositely charged surfaces. Here we show that, even for charge neutral (zwitterionic) lipids, electrostatic interaction is critical in controlling the adsorption and fusion of lipid vesicles to form supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) on surfaces. We use(More)
Flocculation behavior and mechanism of the exopolysaccharide secreted by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (EPS SM9913), a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from 1855m deep-sea sediment, has been studied in this paper. EPS SM9913 showed a peak flocculating activity of 49.3 in 1g/L kaolin suspension with 4.55mmol/L CaCl2 and the optimum pH range of 5-8. It appears(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a well-studied calcium sensor that is ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and contributes to signaling during developmental processes and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Among eukaryotes, plants have a remarkable variety of CaM-like proteins (CMLs). The expansion of genomic data sets offers the opportunity to explore CaM and CML evolution(More)
We measure the viscosity of nanometer-thick water films at the interface with an amorphous silica surface. We obtain viscosity values from three different measurements: friction force in a water meniscus formed between an oxide-terminated W tip and the silica surface under ambient conditions; similar measurements for these interfaces under water; and the(More)
Using interfacial force microscopy and a spherical glass probe, we investigate the adhesive and mechanical properties of the so-called liquid-like layer (L-LL) on the surface of ice at various temperatures over the range from -10 to -30 degrees C. We find that the layer thickness closely follows that predicted on thermodynamic grounds, while the adhesive(More)
A dramatic transition in the mechanical properties of water is observed at the nanometer scale. For a water meniscus formed between two hydrophilic surfaces in the attractive region, with < or = 1 nm interfacial separation, the measured viscosity is 7 orders of magnitude greater than that of bulk water at room temperature. Grand canonical Monte Carlo(More)
In typical semiconductor solar cells, photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generate hot charge carriers that quickly cool before all of their energy can be captured, a process that limits device efficiency. Although fabricating the semiconductor in a nanocrystalline morphology can slow this cooling, the transfer of hot carriers to electron(More)
A hallmark of cell-surface processes involving glycans is their multivalent interaction with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). Such a multivalent interaction depends critically on the mobility and density of signaling molecules on the membrane surface. While glycan microarrays have been used in exploring multivalent interactions, the lack of mobility and the(More)
Photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) relies on the dissociation of excitons into free electrons and holes at donor/acceptor heterointerfaces. The low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors leads to strong Coulomb interactions between electron-hole pairs that should in principle oppose the generation of free charges. The exact(More)