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CONTEXT Postmortem studies have found evidence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in unmedicated patients have reported glutamine or glutamate-glutamine (Glx) elevations in this region. Abnormalities in these transmitters(More)
The majority of 170 rice accessions used in this study were diverse landraces or varieties from a putative mini-core collection of Chinese germplasm along with some widely used parental lines in genetic analysis or breeding (a few from abroad). The population was genotyped using 84 SSR or InDel markers on chromosome 7 and 48 markers on other chromosomes.(More)
This study investigated the effects of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, an effective allelochemical on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris at physiological gene transcription level. Exposure to 2.5 mg L(-1) of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT),(More)
BACKGROUND We used a positron emission tomography paradigm with the D2/3 radiotracer [¹¹C]raclopride and an alcohol challenge to examine the magnitude of alcohol-induced dopamine release and compare it between young men and women. METHODS Twenty-one nonalcohol-dependent young social drinkers completed two positron emission tomography scans on separate(More)
BACKGROUND Low striatal dopamine 2/3 receptor (D(2/3)) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) release have been observed in alcoholism and cocaine and heroin dependence. Less is known about the dopaminergic system in cannabis dependence. We assessed D(2/3) availability and DA release in abstinent cannabis users compared with control subjects and(More)
The amphetamine challenge, in which positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography radioligand binding following administration of amphetamine is compared to baseline values, has been successfully used in a number of brain imaging studies as an indicator of dopaminergic function, particularly in the striatum. [(18)F](More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the main psychoactive component of the recreational drug ecstasy, is a potent serotonin (5-HT) releaser. In animals, MDMA induces 5-HT depletion and toxicity in 5-HT neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate both presynaptic (5-HT transporter, SERT) and postsynaptic (5-HT(2A) receptor) markers of 5-HT(More)
BACKGROUND An imaging method to probe glutamate levels in vivo would allow the study of glutamate transmission in disease states and in response to therapeutic interventions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for the first time using positron emission tomography and [(11)C] ABP688, a radiotracer for an allosteric site on the metabotropic(More)
Glutamatergic abnormalities in corticostriatal brain circuits are thought to underlie obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whether these abnormalities exist in adults with OCD is not clear. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS) to test our hypothesis that unmedicated adults with OCD have reduced glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) levels in the(More)
The support vector machine (SVM) has been applied to the problem of bankruptcy prediction, and proved to be superior to competing methods such as the neural network, the linear multiple discriminant approaches and logistic regression. However, the conventional SVM employs the structural risk minimization principle, thus empirical risk of misclassification(More)