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With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
The expression of certain endothelial cell adhesion molecules is increased during endothelial dysfunction or inflammatory activation. This has led to the concept of using microbubbles for targeted molecular imaging or drug delivery. In this approach, microbubbles with a specific ligand to receptors expressed at the site of specific diseases are constructed.(More)
Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is a stochastic search algorithm based on the law of gravity and mass interactions. For the purpose of enhancing the performance of standard GSA, this paper proposes a robust hybrid gravitational search algorithm (RHGSA). This algorithm makes the best of ergodicity of PieceWise Linear chaotic map to explore the global(More)
This paper proposes a novel image segmentation method based on BP neural network, which is optimized by an enhanced Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). GSA is a novel heuristic optimization algorithm based on the law of gravity and mass interactions. It has been proven that the GSA has good ability to search for the global optimum, but it suffers from the(More)