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hina has experienced unprecedented economic growth over the past two decades, accompanied by the development of large-scale industries and services. In the course of this expansion, medium-sized cities and small towns have sprung up around the larger cities, forming city clusters, often with similar or interdependent economies. The development of city(More)
China is taking major steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. However, concentrations of fine particulate matter and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in the summertime. Based on the US EPA's Models-3/CMAQ model simulation over the Beijing region, we estimate that about 34% of PM 2.5 on average and 35–60% of ozone(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) elicit basal defense responses in plants, and, in turn, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome these PAMP-induced defenses. To suppress immunity, the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae secretes effector proteins, the biochemical function and virulence targets of which remain largely unknown.(More)
Plants use receptor kinases, such as FLS2 and EFR, to perceive bacterial pathogens and initiate innate immunity. This immunity is often suppressed by bacterial effectors, allowing pathogen propagation. To counteract, plants have evolved disease resistance genes that detect the bacterial effectors and reinstate resistance. The Pseudomonas syringae effector(More)
Arabidopsis NONHOST1 (NHO1) is required for limiting the in planta growth of nonhost Pseudomonas bacteria but completely ineffective against the virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, the molecular basis underlying this observation remains unknown. Here we show that NHO1 is transcriptionally activated by flagellin. The nonhost(More)
The successful recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as a danger signal is crucial for plants to fend off numerous potential pathogenic microbes. The signal is relayed through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades to activate defenses. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 can interact with(More)
Gram-negative bacteria use a variety of virulence factors including phytotoxins, exopolysaccharides, effectors secreted by the type III secretion system, and cell-wall-degrading enzymes to promote parasitism in plants. However, little is known about how these virulence factors alter plant cellular responses to promote disease. In this study, we show that(More)
Pseudomonas syringae relies on type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell for parasitism. Type III genes are induced in planta, but host factors affecting the induction are poorly understood. Here we report on the identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, att1 (for aberrant induction of type three genes), that greatly enhances(More)
Nitrification plays a significant role in the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia oxidation, the first step of nitrification, is performed in wastewater treatment by both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Most previous studies focused on their distribution in natural environments. In this study we qualified and quantified AOB,(More)
Solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC), organic carbon, elemental carbon and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM(2.5) samples collected in Shanghai, China in 2002 and 2003 were measured to determine the composition and sources of the organic matter in atmospheric aerosols. Distinct seasonal variations were detected with higher concentrations of(More)