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Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) elicit basal defense responses in plants, and, in turn, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome these PAMP-induced defenses. To suppress immunity, the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae secretes effector proteins, the biochemical function and virulence targets of which remain largely unknown.(More)
Plants use receptor kinases, such as FLS2 and EFR, to perceive bacterial pathogens and initiate innate immunity. This immunity is often suppressed by bacterial effectors, allowing pathogen propagation. To counteract, plants have evolved disease resistance genes that detect the bacterial effectors and reinstate resistance. The Pseudomonas syringae effector(More)
The successful recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as a danger signal is crucial for plants to fend off numerous potential pathogenic microbes. The signal is relayed through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades to activate defenses. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 can interact with(More)
CpG islands (CGIs) are CpG-rich regions compared to CpG-depleted bulk DNA of mammalian genomes and are generally regarded as the epigenetic regulatory regions in association with unmethylation, promoter activity and histone modifications. Accurate identification of CpG islands with epigenetic regulatory function in bulk genomes is of wide interest. Here,(More)
Bacteria play an important role in the decomposition and cycling of a variety of compounds in freshwater aquatic environments, particularly nutrient-rich eutrophic lakes. A unique Chinese eutrophic lake--Dianchi--was selected for study because it has two separate and distinct basins, Caohai with higher organic carbon levels and Waihai with lower organic(More)
As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent(More)
Dianchi Lake is a typical Chinese eutrophic lake. The bacterial community in the polluted water of the Dianchi lakeshore was investigated by cultivation-independent approaches. The amplicon length heterogeneity polymerase-chain reaction (LH-PCR) was used to detect the major differences in bacterial structure among the nine different sampling sites. Cluster(More)
Since 2007, many cases of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) have emerged in Henan Province, China. Patient reports of tick bites suggested that infection could contribute to FTLS. Many tick-transmitted microbial pathogens were tested for by PCR/RT-PCR and/or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). However, only 8% (24/285) of samples(More)
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) trigger plant immunity that forms the first line inducible defenses in plants. The regulatory mechanism of MAMP-triggered immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (EIL1),(More)
Bactrian camels serve as an important means of transportation in the cold desert regions of China and Mongolia. Here we present a 2.01 Gb draft genome sequence from both a wild and a domestic bactrian camel. We estimate the camel genome to be 2.38 Gb, containing 20,821 protein-coding genes. Our phylogenomics analysis reveals that camels shared common(More)