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Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) elicit basal defense responses in plants, and, in turn, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome these PAMP-induced defenses. To suppress immunity, the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae secretes effector proteins, the biochemical function and virulence targets of which remain largely unknown.(More)
The successful recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as a danger signal is crucial for plants to fend off numerous potential pathogenic microbes. The signal is relayed through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades to activate defenses. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 can interact with(More)
The development of sensitive and versatile techniques to detect protein-protein interactions in vivo is important for understanding protein functions. The previously described techniques, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, which are used widely for protein-protein interaction studies in plants, require(More)
Arabidopsis NONHOST1 (NHO1) is required for limiting the in planta growth of nonhost Pseudomonas bacteria but completely ineffective against the virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, the molecular basis underlying this observation remains unknown. Here we show that NHO1 is transcriptionally activated by flagellin. The nonhost(More)
Bacteria play an important role in the decomposition and cycling of a variety of compounds in freshwater aquatic environments, particularly nutrient-rich eutrophic lakes. A unique Chinese eutrophic lake--Dianchi--was selected for study because it has two separate and distinct basins, Caohai with higher organic carbon levels and Waihai with lower organic(More)
We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), which is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. The DC3000 genome (6.5 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and two plasmids, which collectively encode 5,763 ORFs. We identified 298 established and putative virulence(More)
Plants use receptor kinases, such as FLS2 and EFR, to perceive bacterial pathogens and initiate innate immunity. This immunity is often suppressed by bacterial effectors, allowing pathogen propagation. To counteract, plants have evolved disease resistance genes that detect the bacterial effectors and reinstate resistance. The Pseudomonas syringae effector(More)
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) trigger plant immunity that forms the first line inducible defenses in plants. The regulatory mechanism of MAMP-triggered immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (EIL1),(More)
Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, referred to here as effector-triggered immunity (ETI).(More)
CpG islands (CGIs) are CpG-rich regions compared to CpG-depleted bulk DNA of mammalian genomes and are generally regarded as the epigenetic regulatory regions in association with unmethylation, promoter activity and histone modifications. Accurate identification of CpG islands with epigenetic regulatory function in bulk genomes is of wide interest. Here,(More)