Xiaoyan Robert Bao

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Fast synaptic transmission depends on the selective ionic permeability of transmitter-gated ion channels. Here we show changes in the ion selectivity of neuronal P2X transmitter-gated cation channels as a function of time (on the order of seconds) and previous ATP exposure. Heterologously expressed P2X2, P2X2/P2X3 and P2X4 channels as well as native(More)
The activation of macrophages through Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways leads to the production of a broad array of cytokines and mediators that coordinate the immune response. The inflammatory potential of this response can be reduced by compounds, such as prostaglandin E(2), that induce the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Through(More)
We used optical tweezers to tie individual DNA molecules in knots. Although these knots become highly localized under tension, they remain surprisingly mobile and undergo thermal diffusion with classical random walk statistics. The diffusion constants of knots with different complexities correlate with theoretical calculations of knot sizes. We show that(More)
Different cells, even those that are genetically identical, can respond differently to identical stimuli, but the precise source of this variability remains obscure. To study this problem, we built a microfluidic experimental system which can track responses of individual cells across multiple stimulations. We used this system to determine that amplitude(More)
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