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Cancer cells have metabolic dependencies that distinguish them from their normal counterparts. Among these dependencies is an increased use of the amino acid glutamine to fuel anabolic processes. Indeed, the spectrum of glutamine-dependent tumours and the mechanisms whereby glutamine supports cancer metabolism remain areas of active investigation. Here we(More)
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a regulated catabolic pathway to degrade cellular organelles and macromolecules. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex and may differ depending on tumor type or context. Here we show that pancreatic cancers have a distinct dependence on autophagy. Pancreatic cancer primary tumors and cell lines show elevated autophagy(More)
DNA damage elicits a cellular signaling response that initiates cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Here, we find that DNA damage triggers a critical block in glutamine metabolism, which is required for proper DNA damage responses. This block requires the mitochondrial SIRT4, which is induced by numerous genotoxic agents and represses the metabolism of(More)
Autophagy, the process by which proteins and organelles are sequestered in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is critical in diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Much of our understanding of this process has emerged from analysis of bulk cytoplasmic autophagy, but our understanding of how(More)
Many testing methods are based on program paths. A well-known problem with them is that some paths are infeasible. To decide the feasibility of paths, we may solve a set of constraints. In this paper, we describe constraint-based tools that can be used for this purpose. They accept constraints expressed in a natural form, which may involve variables of(More)
UNLABELLED Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is refractory to available therapies. We have previously shown that these tumors have elevated autophagy and that inhibition of autophagy leads to decreased tumor growth. Using an autochthonous model of pancreatic cancer driven by oncogenic Kras and the stochastic LOH of Trp53, we demonstrate that although genetic(More)
Pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer that typically presents as advanced, unresectable disease. This invasive tendency, coupled with intrinsic resistance to standard therapies and genome instability, are major contributors to poor long-term survival. The genetic elements governing the invasive propensity of PDAC have not been well(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that permits cells to recycle intracellular macromolecules, and its inhibition reduces pancreatic cancer growth in model systems. We evaluated hydoxychloroquine (HCQ), an inhibitor of autophagy, in patients with pancreatic cancer and analyzed pharmacodynamic markers in treated patients and mice. METHODS Patients(More)
The transition period is a severe challenge to dairy cows. Glucose supply cannot meet demand and body fat is mobilized, potentially leading to negative energy balance (NEB), ketosis, or fatty liver. Propionate produces glucose by gluconeogenesis, which depends heavily on the number and species of microbes. In the present study, we analyzed the rumen(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a(More)