Xiaoxiao Zhang

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In the vertebrate neural tube, regional Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling invokes a time- and concentration-dependent induction of six different cell populations mediated through Gli transcriptional regulators. Elsewhere in the embryo, Shh/Gli responses invoke different tissue-appropriate regulatory programs. A genome-scale analysis of DNA binding by Gli1 and(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells and circulating monocytes. To investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during DC differentiation, maturation, and function, we profiled miRNA expression in human monocytes, immature DCs (imDCs), and mature DCs (mDCs). Stage-specific, differential(More)
While numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to alter their expression levels in human lung cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, the function of these miRNAs and their contribution to the long process of lung cancer development remains largely unknown. We applied a tobacco-specific carcinogen-induced cancer model to investigate the(More)
Ago (Argonaute) proteins are essential effectors of RNA-mediated gene silencing. To explore potential regulatory mechanisms for Ago proteins, we examined the phosphorylation of human Ago2. We identified serine-387 as the major Ago2 phosphorylation site in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ago2 at serine-387 was significantly induced by treatment with sodium arsenite(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small approximately 22 nt noncoding (nc) RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by direct binding to target sites on mRNAs. They comprise more than 1,000 novel species in mammalian cells and exert their function by modulating gene expression through several different mechanisms, including translational(More)
Cytoplasmic plant immune receptors recognize specific pathogen effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity. In Arabidopsis, the immune receptors RPS4 and RRS1 are both required to activate defense to three different pathogens. We show that RPS4 and RRS1 physically associate. Crystal structures of the N-terminal Toll-interleukin-1(More)
RATIONALE Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β super family of secreted factors. A recent study showed that reduced GDF11 blood levels with aging was associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH) and restoring GDF11 to normal levels in old mice rescued PCH. OBJECTIVE To determine whether and by(More)
Adaptive changes to oxygen availability are critical for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. Prolonged oxygen deprivation due to reduced blood flow to cardiac or peripheral tissues can lead to myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease, respectively. Mammalian cells respond to hypoxia by modulating oxygen-sensing transducers that stabilize the(More)
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain occurs in animal and plant immune receptors. In the animal Toll-like receptors, homodimerization of the intracellular TIR domain is required for initiation of signaling cascades leading to innate immunity. By contrast, the role of the TIR domain in cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant(More)
microRNAs are widely expressed, ∼22-nt-long regulatory RNAs. They are first transcribed as much longer primary transcripts, which then undergo a series of processing steps to yield the single-stranded, mature microRNAs, although the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the terminal loop region of human primary microRNA transcripts is(More)