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The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of thousands of gene targets. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are likely to be master regulators of many important biological processes. Due to their functional importance, miRNAs are under intense study at present, and many studies have been published in recent years on(More)
MOTIVATION Large arrays of oligonucleotide probes have become popular tools for analyzing RNA expression. However to date most oligo collections contain poorly validated sequences or are biased toward untranslated regions (UTRs). Here we present a strategy for picking oligos for microarrays that focus on a design universe consisting exclusively of protein(More)
MicroRNAs play important roles in animal development, cell differentiation, and metabolism and have been implicated in human cancer. The let-7 microRNA controls the timing of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans and is poorly expressed or deleted in human lung tumors. Here, we show that let-7 is highly expressed in normal(More)
Target predictions and validations are major obstacles facing microRNA (miRNA) researchers. Animal miRNA target prediction is challenging because of limited miRNA sequence complementarity to the targets. In addition, only a small number of predicted targets have been experimentally validated and the miRNA mechanism is poorly understood. Here we present a(More)
MOTIVATION MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many diverse biological processes and they may potentially regulate the functions of thousands of genes. However, one major issue in miRNA studies is the lack of bioinformatics programs to accurately predict miRNA targets. Animal miRNAs have limited sequence complementarity to their gene targets, which makes it(More)
Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causality and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. We demonstrate that Fn adheres to, invades, and induces oncogenic and inflammatory responses to stimulate growth of CRC cells through its unique FadA adhesin. FadA binds to E-cadherin, activates β-catenin(More)
Over the last decade, gene expression microarrays have had a profound impact on biomedical research. The diversity of platforms and analytical methods available to researchers have made the comparison of data from multiple platforms challenging. In this study, we describe a framework for comparisons across platforms and laboratories. We have attempted to(More)
BACKGROUND Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates have been increasing significantly in recent years, despite a decreasing incidence of head and neck cancer in general. Oropharyngeal SCC has many characteristics that are distinct from other head and neck cancers, and thus it is important to focus specifically on cancers arising in this region,(More)